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Human Organization 1952

De Lien, H. and Hadley, J. Nixon. How to Recognize An Indian Health Problem Human Organization Fall, 1952 Vol.11(3):33-37.

In this article, authors De Lien and Hadley address the ambiguous status of an Indian for public health purposes and the challenge of collecting reliable data for analysis and interpretation during 1952 and the previous years. De Lien and Hadley state, “Accurate data relating to morbidity, birth and mortality rates are generally not available at the health unit, the agency, the state or federal levels.” They emphasize the need for “careful evaluation” of Indian data and the use of the best statistical methods should be used.

The authors use a letter from the agency after inquiring for Indian health information as proof of their contentions. The State Department of Health says that they had no data and replied that “Necessary vital statistics are not reported to this agency…” Also cited is a survey from 1945 where 600 students at an Indian school were tested for syphilis. Since no proper controls were set before the experiment, inaccuracies in the initial findings of 171 positives were reported to the media. After re-evaluation, there were only 22 actual positives. This survey was poorly conducted and created “suspicion and distrust…a definite disservice to the ‘Indian’.” They use the census reports of ten states during the years of 1940-1950. Indians were included under the “Negro” or “Minor Races” category. This misrepresents the total number of Indians, as they are included with other minorities. The 1940 Birth Registration tables were also used to demonstrate that nearly all birth and death reports on Indians were only estimated.

Also, using such a small population poses its own problems when looking at Indian data. Subdividing such small populations when evaluating different trends leads to inaccuracy. Accuracy of reporting was a big issue in the U.S., due to registration of birth or death was available. Also, there is a difference “in the age-sex composition of the Indian population and the general United States population.” People with mixed Indian blood were not counted in the census, and no estimates for the Indian populations, birth or death rates were available from the Bureau of Census.

SHANNON PETERS Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan)

Dobyns, Henry F. Thirsty Indians: Introduction of Wells Among People of an Arid Region.Human Organizations Winter, 1952 Vol.11(4): 33-36.

Henry F. Dobyns’s article pertains to the introduction of wells to the Papago Native Americans in the arid Paragueria region of the Southwestern United States. He claimed that though life-giving water is in short supply, the people of this region have existed here for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. They call themselves the Tohono Au’autam, or desert people, and have until the last couple of centuries had to contend with their environment in an effort to collect enough water to sustain life. The challenges that faced these people have caused them to seek out every drop of water in order to fend off their thirst. Dobyns contends that the introduction of wells provided a constant supply of fresh water to the Papago.

This article examines the painstaking measures the Papago had to take in order to collect drinking water. Dobyns claims that the people used their stone-aged technology to extract water from the environment. The Paragueria region totals from only three to ten inches of rainfall annually. Dobyns states that prior to Western intervention, the women of this culture exploited water sources by using their stone-aged technology. When rain fell they obtained water from streams, ponds, and springs. On the other hand, the water would evaporate in the dry season and the people would have to move to the surrounding hills where water could be collected. There the women could find water seeping out of rock walls or dig for water. Dobyns claims that both of these methods yielded only minor results.

Dobyns goes on to say that metal tools acquired from Anglo miners in the late nineteenth century made attaining and storing rainwater more efficient. The miners also dug primitive wells to adhere to their need for water. After plundering the mineral wealth from the mines the miners abandoned the wells. Dobyns claims that some of the Papago moved closer to these abandoned wells to utilize the supply of water. The Papago would eventually exhaust the supply of water within these temporary wells. However, Dobyns asserts that the technology of metal tools made the task of extracting and storing water slightly easier after these primitive wells had dried.

This article also states that in 1915 the Untied States Indian Bureau stepped in to build permanent wells to provide a permanent supply of drinking water to the Papago. The Irrigation Division of the Indian Bureau was able to drill several wells, but ran out of funding in 1930 before wells reached all settlements. Dobyns contends that the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) stepped in to finish the project. According to Dobyns, although the CCC ran into cultural disputes over building some wells, they drilled them anyway. This led to disputes between the people of the villages, which ultimately ended in the overall breakdown of the villages’ social structures and eventual acceptance of the wells. Dobyns asserts that the Papago would later ask for roads to make transportation easier. The request was granted, though these roads typically pandered to the tourism industry. The Papago ultimately acquired an abundant and permanent supply of water due to the permanent wells.

AARON M. KRUEGER Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan)

Donahue, Francis M. and Humphrey, Norman D. Changing Bureaucracy and Social Power in a Chicago Ukrainian Parish. Human Organization Summer, 1952. Vol.11(2):23-26.

Donahue and Humphrey’s article is a study of the “democratization,” “protestantization,” and “secularization” of a Ukrainian immigrant and his family using the church as the central structure of reference. Their transformation is reflected in viewing cultural trends and the “emergence of social and bureaucratic power.” The transformation of the Ukrainian ethnic leader, the priest, and his role as a bureaucratic and secular leader, as well as head of the church attribute to Donahue’s and Humprey’s ideas of assimilation.

Historically, the Ukrainians began to settle in 1898 in the section of Chicago called Burnside. They became industrial workers and unskilled laborers. The fact that they needed to assimilate to American culture altered their lives, specifically the role of church and priests in their daily life. The Ukrainian church moved from Uniate to Orthodox affiliation as many Uniate priests moved in and out of the church. This symbolized their refusal to be dominated as they assimilated to the more protestant or “democratic ideal” for a self-governing group. The position of the priest was that of a “hired employee.” The congregation’s legal right to control the church property changed the role of the priest. The emergence of other secular leaders in the community played a mediating role between the immigrants and the American community. This is the role of Mr. K, a well-educated civil service employee. Mr. K “seems to have the singular ability to sense the direction and preponderant weight of the public opinion and to become the spokesman for the majority.”

The assimilation of the Ukrainians is seen in their altered church customs, such as the Easter Sunday meal, the Feast of the Epiphany and the events of the Pentecost. One primary concern is that the second generation has failed to become integrated to the customs of the church. In response, the church combined activities and changed customs, to make the younger generation more apt to attend services and learn the ways of the church and to make church life more appealing. Although the community life of the Ukrainians is integrated around the parish, taverns are a social center for men of the community. As a result, drinking is incorporated into church events and other social activities outside the tavern. Donahue and Humprey end the article questioning what the future will bring for the Ukrainian immigrants of Chicago.

SHANNON PETERS Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan).

Erasmus, John Charles. Agricultural Changes in Haiti: Patterns of Resistance and Acceptance. Human Organizations Winter, 1952. Vol.11(4):20-26.

Erasmus’s article discusses the factors that influence resistance to technical change among traditional farmers in Haiti. The author notes a number of factors that influence the acceptance of agricultural innovations.

The presence of greater resistance to innovations that do not produce quick results is a primary factor. The level of complexity of the innovation is another factor determining the willingness to accept new ideas. Farmers are often suspicious of ideas and innovations presented by “experts”. A widely held view of the success of innovations in government-sponsored projects is that they are due to the special conditions under which they are originally produced. The ordinary farmers did not believe the projects would work for them.

Another factor restricting innovation is “jealousy”. Farmers who do better than their neighbors are often viewed with suspicion. Traditions are highly prized and one of these traditions is not trying to rise above others. A farmer who is envied by neighbors is likely to be shunned. The article implies that their concept of community involves a society of equals. In some cases, innovation may be adopted as part of a “complex”. In this particular case, the adoption of one idea readily accepted by farmers can be tied to the simultaneous adoption of an idea more likely to be resisted. For example, the introduction of coffee as a cash crop was accompanied by reafforestation when tree planting was seen to provide windbreaks for the coffee plants.

The age of the farmer additionally effected adoption of innovation rates. Young people were much more likely to accept new ideas readily. However, it must be noted that these young people often faced less risk than their elders since they belonged to organizations that were often provided with free land by the government.

Efforts have been made to assist farmers who are too poor to innovate to do so by cooperation. For example, several farmers might be brought together to share a plow and oxen. It seems, however, that these arrangements have a high failure rate due to “jealousy” and the tendency of members of the group not to live up to their obligations.

The article also includes a number of instances where innovation has been relatively successful. In the most significant of these people who had previously been employed on large commercial farms, where plows were widely used, introduced these implements into their own farming practices. However, it seems that others did not accept the use of plows in the traditional community.

SHEILA URQUHART Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan).

Esch, Joy. A Footnote on Modern Rural Society. Human Organization Winter, 1952. Vol.11(4):37-38.

Joy Esch’s article examines the portrayal of characters performed in a variety of plays by 4-H members in a rural society. The author came into the position of viewing these plays when she was asked to be a judge for the competition in which the plays were a part. After seeing a few plays, Esch realized that the actors were “limited by their scripts, [and] they were certainly demonstrating a number of their own perceptions and attitudes…” Finding this interesting, the author began to pay more attention to the styles being used by the 4-H members. She came to the conclusion that some characters were portrayed much in the same way in several plays. Esch also discovered that it was easier for the girls to portray city people than it was for them to portray people in their own town. Esch attributes this to the fact that the girls read magazines such as Mademoiselle and Seventeen. Esch also explored the use of accessories, such as guns, razors, and old-fashioned telephones in the plays. She noticed the difference in how boys and girls handled them.

Towards the end of the article, Esch discusses the choice of plays made by the club leaders, and how they were directed. She concludes that the directors were more concerned with the appearance of the scenery than they were with the acting.

ALLISON CHENOWETH Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan).

Euler, Robert C. and Naylor, Harry L. Southern Ute Rehabilitation Planning: A Study in Self-Determination. Human Organization Winter, 1952 Vol.11(4):27-32

The article by Robert C. Euler and Harry L. Naylor looks at the trials the Southern Utes go through learning to make their own decisions, and how recent Ute history has brought the two tribes to the point where they have the opportunity to make their own decisions. The Southern Ute and the Ute Mountain Ute were allotted over $12,000,000 by the United States Court of Claims as retribution for lands taken from them. The Alburquerque Area Office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs assisted the two Ute tribal councils to create plans for the use of their money. This was one of the first times that they had been given authority and an oppertunity for self-determination. Due to the past restrictions placed on the Ute about making their own plans they quickly turned to the Agency for help.

The Ute were given freedom in deciding how they wanted the money spent. However, they quickly became insecure and turned to the Area Office for support, as they were unfamiliar with dealing with such large sums. The Area Office proved to be of no help to the Ute. The proposal, outlining money spenditure, presented was turned down.

This failure led the Southern Ute and the Ute Mountain Ute to separate and work independently. The Southern Ute focused on using the money to get what they needed for as little as possible, enabling them to obtain more improvements. They began to have inner conflicts due to a veteran group that believed it had a better plan for money. As a result, when the article was written they had yet to receive any money.

The Ute Mountain Ute had a considerable amount of trouble with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, which was inhibiting to their relationship. This was due in part to the fact that they were a less acculturated tribe and resented the changes that the Bureau had tried to force on them in the past.

No plan for spending the money had been passed for the Ute Mountain Ute either at the time the article was written. It was decided that the Bureau and the Consolidated Ute Agency would safeguard the money for them until they could provide the means to present a proposal.

Euler and Naylor both felt that there was not enough time to completely study the effects the government money had on the tribe’s ability to govern themselves. They felt some actions had demonstrated their governing abilities, for example the organization of committees to draw up proposals, and their attempts at working through the dilemma on their own. However, more time is needed to determine the eventual outcome for both tribes.

KATHY LARSEN Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan)

Foster, George M. Relationships Between Theoretical and Applied Anthropology: A Public Health Program Analysis. Human Organization Fall, 1952 Vol.11(3):5-16.

Applied Anthropology has always generated controversy. This is largely due to the fact that theoretical anthropology dominated the early scene. Theoretical anthropology was more academically accredited than applied anthropology as well. However, as the social and economic aspects of cultures become more important, applied anthropology became increasingly necessary. This conflict of theory based anthropology and applied anthropology led to attempts to bring the two parts of anthropology together.

Once attempt to consolidate the areas of anthropology involved creating health programs in 17 Latin American countries. Through the process of establishing these health facilities, fieldwork was completed in four countries and conclusive data was tested in three different countries. The research led to several findings. The relevance of folk medicine in comparison to western medicine was prominent in the conclusions. In order for the health practitioners to be taken seriously, it was important for them to be aware of folk remedies. It increased confidence in patients if the doctor was able to recommend what the health facility considered “good” remedies and discard the “bad” remedies. Patients would be more apt to try western medicines if they thought they could trust the doctor.

Other findings included the native’s perceptions of time and how they differed from those of western people. It was difficult for the patients to maintain a schedule to use medication because they had no concept of hours or other standard western time models. Gynecology was also a difficult area because it enraged jealous husbands. Preventative medicine was highly problematic. The native people did not understand going to the doctor when one is healthy. Their perception of the doctors was as a healer, not as a person knowledgeable of sickness and prevention.

The conclusions of the study resulted in four theoretical concepts. “Functionalism” was apparent by the affects of the western ideas on the cultures. The way in which the people reacted to western medical beliefs provided insight into their own system of belief in relevance to sickness. “Cultural relativism” was imperative in this study, especially in areas where the western ideas backfired. “Creole Culture”, which examines the commonalities between the cultures studied and places them in a general category, is applied to the research. Finally, the fact that “generalizations and conclusions” did not provide a solution to any given problem is justified by the acquired knowledge of the Latin American culture, which perpetuates more research. In doing so, it increases the desire and importance of applied and practical anthropology.

CHRISTIE SMITH Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan)

II, Hope, John. Industrial Integration of Negroes: The Upgrading Process. Human Organization Winter, 1952 Vol.11(4):5-14.

John Hope, II describes the struggle of African American workers in three southern plants of International Harvester Company during the industrialization period. Hope illustrates a paradigm shift happening in three general stages:

“(1) Complete exclusion of the minority; (2) restricted utilization, in which minority status is a factor in choice, manner and extent of utilization; (3) utilization of the minority on the basis of objective efficiency qualifications alone”.

Hope’s article is focused around the effects of management’s integration of a non-discrimination policy. All three plants applied the non-discrimination policy in fresh situations and therefore did not encounter conflict due to previous policies.

Within the three work places examined there are two central modes of action an “old employee” can use in order to acquire a different or better job within the same department. The first, and more often practiced method is to bid on an open job in the department. The second is referred to as “bumping” and consists of seeking a better position already filled. The person seeking the higher position “bumps” the current employee out of the job by rules of seniority and superior skill.

Hope proceeds to relate several cases involving African Americans utilizing these methods of upgrade. The first two provide an account of African American workers taking positions of status equal to Caucasian workers within the same area. The next two narrate a circumstance where African American workers were upgraded into skilled positions previously considered “white jobs”. The third group of two describes conflict of African American workers advancing in their status to obtain roles of supervision or authority. The final account illustrates the consequence of a black worker utilizing the “bumping” method in order to acquire a position filled by a Caucasian worker.

All cases had a positive outcome in the sense that the job desired was acquired by the particular African American worker. However, the achievement was no easy task. The African American workers in these three plants encountered racism, violence, and jealousy. Through the boldness of the workers struggling to gain higher positions came progression of integration of African Americans into the industrial workforce.

Hope concludes with a note of confidence in the advancement of minority workers. Hope relates this confidence to the education of the management and the structural ingenuity within the companies. The structure is comprised so that the idea of “unfairness” is virtually non-existent and this equates into unarguable, equal opportunity within the establishment. Hope believes that this structure coupled with consistent education of the non-discrimination policy will eventually lead to “the final stage of colorblind upgrading of workers on the basis of their efficiency qualifications…”

CHRISTIE SMITH Cornell College (Dr. Alrieta Parks Monagan)

Hoyt, Elizabeth E. The Needs of East African Workers. Human Organization Summer, 1952 Vol.11(2) 27-28.

This article focuses on the needs of East African workers as they have been introduced to large scale industries to gain a secure income. Wage scales in East Africa are based on the need of the individual worker, rather than the need of the worker’s family in general. This increase in income allows the East African people to narrow the status gap between the occupation of land owners and consumer buyers. This increase of income brings an increase in buying power for the East African people. The money is usually spent in three ways: necessary items such as food and clothes, pleasure purchases such as sugar, sweets, or prostitutes, and objects that will increase the consumer’s social status.

One of the most beneficial ways that the new money is being spent is on education. Self-education movements cause families to pay half their cash income for schooling. The production of these self-run schools has often been chagrined by private European schools and missionaries, but the East African “do it ourselves” attitude made the schools successful. Another benefit of the new income is the increase in better nutrition and better housing with newer furniture and more rooms. A definite downside of the new East African income is the new idea of greed. The money used to buy new appliances and technology caused separation between members of tribal units. Other socially destructive results of increased incomes were higher rates of alcoholism, lower birth rates, and the introduction of the sex sale in cities that had never even seen prostitutes before. While the thought of an influx of money into any country seems appealing to any human, there are strong disadvantages to abrupt changes in economic standings in any country without educating the people first of the change and its direct effect on them.

TARA ALCAZAR Cornell College ( Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan).

Jewell, Donald P. A Case of a “Psychotic” Navaho Indian Male. Human Organization Spring, 1952 Vol.11(1):32-36.

In this article, Jewell investigates the case of Navaho Indians in a California state mental hospital, and why there may be problems with the treatment techniques used there. He feels that the Navaho have to deal with serious “Cultural and linguistic obstacles” with the doctors who are treating them. In order to understand more about how the Navaho feel, Jewell discusses the behavior patterns of the Navaho, saying that they “are in many ways unique, not only with respect to white people, but other Indian tribes as well.” These behavior patterns may be a contributing factor to what doctors in the mental hospital may consider problems, when really they are not.

Jewell also made a survey of the most likely mental hospital hospitals to treat Navaho patients. He found that “The Bureau of Indian Affairs policy is not to concentrate Indian patients…” This meant that the Navaho might be taken to hospitals far from their reservation areas. This fact is another clue to the problems being had. Jewell also found in this survey that schizophrenia was a commonly diagnosed problem.

Jewell also focuses on one particular patient, who he calls “Bill.” The author spent three hours each week with Bill for three months, and following this spent a few months in the area where Bill grew up.

Bill was born and lived in a very poor part of his reservation, and was raised in traditional Navaho ways. When he was older, he worked for his grandfather as a shepherd. Following this, he moved to Colorado, where he worked for the railroad for a time before staying at a hospital in Arizona for eight months with tuberculosis. After he was cured (1944), he went back to the railroad. In 1949, Bill went back home, but then moved to Phoenix to pick cotton. This job was short-lived, and Bill moved to California later that year to find work with the railroad, but lost his savings to a con man. He was later arrested and jailed for vagrancy. Odd jobs earned Bill money for a short period of time, but he wanted to go home. He thought that if he could get sent to a Navaho hospital, they would help him, because “on the reservations, the hospitals, schools, and trading posts are the major source of assistance in all sorts of troubles.”

Bill approached a woman one day, thinking that she was a nurse, but he was taken to jail instead. In the jail, Bill was unsuccessfully interviewed by a Mexican interpreter. When interviewed by a medical examiner, Bill said the words “Me sick,” which lead to his transport to a mental hospital and diagnosis with Catatonic Schizophrenia. Eight months later discovered by Jewell.

Jewell used a Navaho interpreter to interview Bill and discovered what was really going on with him. Jewell then talked to the superintendent of the institute and steps were taken to help Bill recover more quickly. After 18 months, Bill was released from the institute, thanks to Jewell.

ALLISON CHENOWETH Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan)

Keesing, Felix M. The Papuan Orokaiva Vs Mt. Lamington: Cultural Shock and Its Aftermath. Human Organization Fall, 1952 Vol.11(1):16-22.

This article was about how one anthropologist was asked advice on what to do with people of the Orokaiva region after the volcanic eruption of Mt. Lamington. Since many of their basic cultural structures were disrupted the government had many questions about what to do with these people.

Keesing starts by explaining what happened immediately after the eruption. Local groupings were assembled for emergency care and official aid. Child survivors were taken care of by unrelated families, many of whom could also have lost their own children. Later in the article Keesing expresses concern for the temporary conditions that these people were living under; they were normally feuding people and tensions were beginning to run high.

The most pertinent question was whether or not to use this disastrous occasion in order to reform and resettle the Orokaiva people for good, or to let them scatter as they had before. What the author suggested for the resettlement option was a middle ground for both the government and the Orokaiva people. He suggested that the government build centers on the major crossroads where you could find health centers, social services and such as well as missionary stations. Then the secondary roads could lead to the new settlements, providing easy access to these centers as well as an easy and fast route out of harm in case of another eruption.

BROOKE FORD Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan)

Lamb, Robert K. Suggestions for a Study of Your Hometown. Human Organization Summer, 1952. Vol. 11(2):29-32.

In this article, Lamb discusses his methods of obtaining a “community-analysis” of your hometown. By using information open to the public and including your personal observations, an in-depth knowledge study of your hometown can be gained. This could be useful if your company transferred you to a new town and instructed you to gather as much knowledge about the new town as possible in an efficient and comprehensive manner.

To begin your research, a street directory is useful. Usually the directory can be broken up into three segments: names of individuals, businesses, and organizations, listings of each house or building, and the classified ads. Furthermore, by looking at a series of old maps of the town, the growth and change of the city can be observed. Lamb also mentions several references that could assist in reconstructing the past of your hometown.

Card files can be useful to note residents and their occupations, which will aid in the creation of a residential map. Examples are given in finding sources and taking notes on bank directors in the city. Individuals of the city can each be put down on note cards and grouped by their respective occupations. This can be followed by locating points of important neighborhood communities, such as churches and social groups, on the map. Often, cities can still be broken down, to a degree, by groupings of nationalities.

Individuals within the community, such as descendants of families with deep generational roots in the town, can be valuable resources in defining the social system of the community. One of the most important social institutions, churches, have a prevalent effect on many of the town’s inhabitants and can provide information to the understanding of the community. Studying leadership in these types of organizations can also contribute to the comprehension of the town’s values and social hierarchy.

Although the facts found by these types of observations are useful, the most significant facts of a town can only be known through the firsthand experience of living in the community. If you are not a native resident, the closest substitute for information is by interviewing the oldest residents. In taking action to better understand your hometown, you learn about the crises the town has faced in the past and what continues to bond the community together. By following the steps he lists, Lamb implies that the town in which you live will gain a new level of meaning.

BRIDGETT MAHONEY Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan).

Mandelbaum, David G. Technology, Credit, and Culture in an Indian Village. Human Organizations Fall, 1952 Vol.11(3)28-32.

This article was on the native Kota village in India; the Kota were a stratified society within three other groups, the Karumba, Toda, and Badaga. The focus of the article was on how the trade relationship between the Kota and Badaga changed and the results of the change.

The Kota provided iron tools, wooden utensils, pots and music for the Badaga ceremonies; in return the Badaga gave the Kota grain. The system of trade was that of an individual Kota family trading with another Badaga family. If the Kota family felt as though they were not receiving enough for their services they would cut ties with their Badaga family and no other Kota family would trade with them either. This worked well because if the Badaga did not cooperate enough they would no longer have tools for cultivation or cooking, and no music for their ceremonies. The Kota had control over their economic means; therefore, essentially the success of this cooperation system pivoted on the Kota monopolies.

During recent times, these monopolies have come to a close, and the internal union in the village has faded away. This began about one hundred years ago when English officials, European missionaries and migrants (Hindu and Muslim) came around. However, it had little effect until about twenty-five years ago when the Badaga began to buy their utensils thus starting the downward spiral of the Kota cooperative trading efforts.

This had many implications for the Kota because they were then forced to increase their agricultural activities, concentrating on potatoes as a cash crop. As a result, the number of cattle in the fields was reduced because they were not needed to plough the land. This in turn led to a decrease in organic fertilizer and an increase in artificial fertilizer. The increase in artificial fertilizer made the Kota rely on the cash from their potato crops making them much more encroached in the cycle. This made the use of credit essential for the Kota through government sponsored cooperative associations. The Kota, however, thought these were too rigid and did not use them on a regular basis, even though the interest was much lower. The Kota became dependent on the supply price of fertilizer and food grains in their local ration shops that were in every settlement. Since the Kota were now forced to get grain only from these ration shops they had to take whatever kind of grain the shop had, and with the increase of inflation they received less and less grain with their cash.

All this change weakened the social cohesion in the village, and divided the village into two factions. This occurred because in the past if a villager did not abide by the social rules of the village they would be ostracized. In the past this was very serious because an individual family could not do it alone; but with the advent of ration shops and available laborers for hire an individual could work alone.

The relationship between the Badaga and Kota changed from one of dependence on grain to the dependence of fertilizer, purchasing power, and vagaries of supply in the ration shop for the Kota. However, the biggest change occurred when the Kota no longer had control of whom they would trade with. This eventually led to the formations of the two factions and hostilities between the Kota and Badaga along with the government.

BROOKE FORD Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan)

Mann, Floyd and Likert, Rensis. The Need for Research on the Communication of Research Results. Human Organization Winter, 1952 Vol.11(4):15-19.

Mann and Likert examine the differences in presenting research findings in human relations compared to other fields. They contend that for the best utilization of research data it is necessary for the people who will be using the data to have an understanding of the data gathering methods and to participate in the process. This paper explains the methods recommended to gather and present research data to the group using it in order to obtain the best results.

Mann and Likert conducted a study at The Detroit Edison Company in 1948, using company wide surveys of attitudes and opinions of employees to determine the best methods of cooperation between researchers and management implementing research data. According to the authors, the main objectives of the study were to determine job satisfaction, the relationship between management philosophies and employee’s attitudes, the connection between organizational structure and interpersonal relations, and to evaluate the different methods for communicating and implementing research findings. (15)

A primary objective of the authors of the study was to obtain employee participation. Employees from all levels of administration to shop employees were active participants in the gathering of research data. However, since top management would be instrumental in making decisions for change, more effort was made to keep them apprised of the progress of the study. Individual meetings with executives, in conjunction with group conferences, accomplished this goal. The effort was made to keep all the company personnel informed of the findings and of what steps were to be taken. The authors noted that often participation and information dissemination is high at the beginning of a research project but tapers off during the course of the project. They made a conscious effort to keep participation high through the project and increased participation during the analysis-interpretation phase of the study.

Once the data from the surveys were gathered, they were reviewed and presented to top management for assistance in interpreting it. Through a series of meetings with management, specific to sets of data, the results were presented and discussed. In meetings that followed, the data was presented to lower level management by upper management to determine what changes would be beneficial to the company.

The major point observed by the authors during this process was that a high rate of participation and personal involvement was important. Another factor that was found to be essential was group participation in discussion of the findings of the study. It was beneficial for input to be given from various perspectives. The discussions also allowed members of the organization to acknowledge problems and suggest possible solutions.

The authors also discussed the hierarchical structure of the organization. If upper management showed interest in the study results, the subordinate members of that department usually took an interest. The authors also stressed that self-analysis was received better than observations from outside observers. They emphasized the presentation of data in non-technical language and graphs. The concepts or changes are better received if presented in an easily understandable format. The final point the authors made was that there is a need for strong inter-personal and communication skills in researchers doing human relations research.

SHEILA URQUHART Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan)

Opler, Morris E. and Rudrah D. Singh. Economic, Political and Social Change in a Village of North, Central India. Human Organization Summer, 1952. Vol. 11(2):5-12.

In this article, Opler and Singh examine the changes in Madhopur, a typical village of north-central India, and its attempt to reconcile traditional Indian life with outside influences. Madhopur is described as a village of 1,860 people belonging to various Hindu and Muslim castes. Corresponding to this internal division, there are only 300 literate members of the community, all possessing various levels of education.

The problem of supporting an increasing population on a limited supply of cultivated land is addressed by the evidence of the fates of castes such as the Ahirs (Herdsman) and the Chamars (an untouchable caste). Many of the castes chose to leave Madhopur, whether permanently or temporarily, to find land or higher wages outside the village. Accordingly, more villagers are sending their children to other villages to attend school.

In order to comply with the necessity of more efficient agricultural techniques to support the growing population, the government sold all-iron plows and fertilizer in the neighboring town of Kerakat, installed irrigation wells, and began programs to grow new crops; each effort met with a different degree of success. As a result of one program sugar cane gained popularity as a cash crop, intended for trading or selling instead of subsistence. Madhopur’s concentration on the production of grain and sugar, the lack of milk animals as a result of limited pasture lands, and the increasing availability of commercial food and substances resulted in the deterioration of the health of the villagers.

Examples of other new adaptations of Madhopur are given as well, such as the use of kerosene lamps, beds, and foreign household utensils. Likewise, western influenced clothing has also come into style. Long distance communication is made more easily by telegraph and a twice-weekly mail service. Yet, more advanced technology, such as telephones and radios, remain unavailable.

The competition between Indian medicine and Western medicine in Madhopur is discussed in detail to show how the villagers have adapted foreign technology to meet their needs. Incidently, while doctors are consulted more and more often, a pandit (Hindu priest) or ojha (shaman) might also be seen for the same condition. This demonstrates that, although western medicine has gained popularity, especially concerning vaccines, surgery, and eye and dental care, traditional Indian medicine remains significant.

The recent changes occurring in rural India are reflected in the gradual decay of the caste and family structures. While the caste remains an inescapable presence within Indian society, the movement for all cultivators to own land and the uniting political goal of independence have worked towards the goal of dissolving the caste system. Correspondingly, more modern ideas of the position of women and the importance of education for both genders has caused major transition in the traditional Indian “joint family.” By combining its heritage with the now inescapable modern influences, India continues to face the effects of modernization on its unique culture.

BRIDGETT MAHONEY Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan).

Ram, Pars and Gardner Murphy. Recent Investigations of Hindu-Muslim Relations in India. Human Organization Summer, 1952 Vol.11(2):5-13.

In this article, the authors Ram and Murphy explain some of the key differences that keep Muslims and Hindus separate within their society. They conducted research in the predominantly Hindu city of Aligarh and compared the results of their interviews to the experiences of the peoples of India as a whole. As a result of the tension of the religious and social disputes between the Hindus and Muslims, India was partitioned. The new territory of Pakistan now serves as a homeland for Muslims.

Although many Muslim ministers and scholars left to begin a new life in Pakistan, many were unable to leave, causing them to become more insecure of their minority status among the Hindu majority. While Muslims complained about anti-Muslim sentiment, the authors claim that that this feeling is no more widespread than the usual prejudices found in other comparable large cities.

The results of interviews with 50 adult male Muslims and 50 adult male Hindus indicated that Muslims spent much more time incorporating their religion into their daily lives than their counterparts. This indicated their insecurity and need to have a strong religious bond to tie them together as a community to work against the discrimination of Islamic people by Hindus and the Government of India. However, the differing in opinions found between the two peoples can be expected due their differences in experience and different sources and methods of obtaining information.

Different hypotheses have been developed regarding the vast differences between Hindu and Muslim perceptions of the crises occurring between their respective cultures. One hypothesis, “the time perspective,” points out that the unstructured nature of time that Hindus conceptualize is incompatible with the highly structured nature of time in Islam. As a result, Muslims in the study could identify specific, recent conflicts between the groups, while Hindus typically gave examples occurring in a broader, more distant time frame. Another hypothesis suggests the Hindus, being secure of their placement in society, do not need to worry about the clashes with the Muslims, while the Muslims, continuously threatened by the majority group, must take each incident into consideration in order to protect themselves.

The authors conclude that, although Hindu-Muslim relations have improved in select areas of India in certain situations, India currently does not have the funds to carry out the kind of in-depth program necessary to unite the Muslim and Hindu communities. However, hope for peace remains in the number of leaders working with the scarce resources available to try and reconcile cultural differences.

BRIDGETT MAHONEY Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan).

Richardson, Stephen A. Technological Change: Some Effects on Three Canadian Fishing Villages. Human Organization Fall, 1952 Vol.11(3):17-27

When technology begins creeping into societies that have been virtually unchanged for hundreds of years, resistance and fear are to be expected. Three fishing villages in Canada began experiencing the influence of technology as it began affecting their livelihood.

Fishing is the dominant means of subsistence on these Canadian islands. Nearly 96% of the jobs on these islands are tied to the fishing industry. The traditional method of fishing varied slightly from island to island. Hook and line fishing was the most common method. Fishing was done in boats ranging from 30 to 45 feet in length. The men fished within 10 to 15 miles of their homes and were rarely away for more than six to twelve hours. Each community leaned towards a particular type of fishing and stayed on certain fishing grounds. The division of the grounds and methods were long accepted and even when it was known that there was exceptional fishing in an area, the fishermen did not impose on the area.

After the fish were caught they were processed with one of three organizations; local fish buyers, subsidiary fish factories, or the cooperative society. The local fish buyers have plants and are usually headed by a member of the family that owns the plant. These plants often stay in the same family for many generations. The plants owned by outsiders have been in existence for about 30 years. They are very similar to the locally owned factories. However there are a few differences.

Fishing has huge ties to the community via the social societies and activities, schools, government, and church. Understanding the way that it is woven into their lives makes it easier to understand their opposition to the dragger, a new more technologically advanced boat. The last century brought a shift from substinance to an import/export economy. Their traditional methods of fishing and preserving fish are becoming old fashioned. The islanders are hostile to the dragger because it was introduced from the outside. The boats are larger and would be able to employ more fishermen, but due to advances in preparing the fish on the boats, it would put many of the plant workers out of a job.

There has not been much information available to the public about the dragger and so many mysteries and criticisms surround it. The locals felt that the dragger depletes the number of fish in the sea and worry that the dragger would severely hurt them economically. Studies have shown that they do not deplete the numbers of fish, but the people do not know that. The use of the draggers would also cause considerable change in the social and economic situation in the islands.

In order to make the switch successful, the dragger would need to be changed to suit the islanders’ needs, and more information about them would need to be distributed to the public to ease their concerns. Providing information the people would increase their chances at accepting the new boats and help to ease the inevitable social and economic changes that accompany such a transition.

KATHY LARSEN Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan)

Sayles, Leonard R. A Case Study of Union Participation and Technological Change.Human Organization Spring, 1952 Vol.11(1):5-15.

As unionism spread throughout the nation in the early 1940’s, technology was advancing with equal force. Technology was beginning to take over some of the factory positions that once were filled by people. Simultaneously, unions were growing and helping people to maintain their jobs and to receive better treatment, benefits, and salaries. This presented a conflict.

The article focuses primarily on the machine polishers in the Lakeshore Mill of the Eastern Manufacturing Company. Thirty-five men made up the machine polishers division of this corporation. Machine polishing was a skilled job that involved constant and full attention in order to be correctly completed. This meant that the machine polishers worked more consistently and were more highly skilled than the other workers in the facility. Therefore, they saw themselves as superior and began to demand more for themselves.

Together, they organized a union. As WWII became a faction, the company needed more machine polishers and more production out of them. This provided the men with the upper hand and they used their unionized efforts to stage strikes and to achieve the benefits they desired. However, after the war, their union leader left the company, and the Eastern Corporation had transferred its operation. In the new location, they “had installed greatly improved extrusion machines which produced a finished surface on the metal that required no further polishing”. This did not eliminate the machine polishers completely because there was still “special orders” for which machine polishing was needed.

With technological change came turmoil for the union. Disputes in leadership began and, as the late 1940’s approached, the production of military machinery decreased, resulting in a decline in machine polishing. This led to layoffs and demotions. The union increased in dysfunction and decreased in size. Respect for the leaders of the union diminished and there arose an overall dissatisfaction of union attempts to better conditions.

The union slowly dissipated as the interests of the participants changed with the advancing technology. The machine polishers no longer dominated, nor were they needed in many cases. Motivation had become directed more towards seeking and keeping a different position than demanding more for the higher skill. In conclusion, the dramatic changes of the economy and technology resulted in equally dramatic changes in the social atmosphere of the work force, especially among unionized workers in a department that was heading towards elimination.

CHRISTIE SMITH Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan).

Sharp, Lauriston. Steel Axes for Stone-Age Australians. Human Organization Summer, 1952 Vol.11(2):17-22.

In “Steel Axes for Stone-Age Australians,” Sharp discusses the importance and function of the stone axe in the traditional Yir Yoront culture in terms of technology, conduct, and belief. Sharp then analyzes how the introduction of the steel axe, through contact with various Europeans, has undermined the stone axe and has thus drastically affected the Yir Yoront culture. Ultimately, the author believes that the introduction and the success of the steel axe in this aboriginal culture has served as a destructive force and has resulted in the inevitable collapse of the traditional culture and in the construction of a new culture through the incorporation of certain European values.

Sharp understands the importance of the original stone axe in terms of Yir Yoront behavior that centers around this tool. He discusses these ideas in terms of technology, conduct, and belief. Technologically, knowledge about the materials used and the techniques in constructing the stone axes was limited to men only; women and children could use the axe, but were not permitted to make them. The stone axe itself was used for many activities, from building huts, to cutting down firewood, to obtaining food. At the same time, the behavior around the stone axe fostered certain interpersonal relations that were developed through trade between various tribes in the region and were also evident in kinship patterns, based on “pair relationships,” which defined who could own an axe and from whom one would borrow an axe based on gender, age, and kinship roles. Finally, in terms of the Yir Yoront belief system, “the stone axe in all its aspects, uses, and associations was integrated into the context of the Yir Yoront technology and conduct because a myth, a set of ideas, had put it there” (20). Everything that was part of the Yir Yoront culture, and everything that an individual did, was because it happened that way in the past; thus, the stone axe was important because it was a link to the past, and therefore to the present and to the future.

However, the introduction of the steel axe drastically changed these cultural ideas. There were not any significant technological changes, except that men no longer needed to know how to make the axes, they simply received them from the missionaries. But the conduct and belief systems were drastically affected. Men were no longer self-reliant in the production of axes, instead, they became dependent on axes from the missionaries; this also disturbed trade patterns. At the same time, missionaries handed out axes to women, children, and older men, which completely disrupted the gender, age, and kinship roles present in the traditional culture. Finally, the steel axe does not have an origin myth or associated ancestors. Thus, its place in society is circumspect and has caused a suspicion to arise among the Yir Yoront concerning the authenticity of their myths, because they “[fail] to take into account this vast new universe of the white man.” Sharp thus concludes that without a strong support system based on belief, which has been destroyed by the steel axe, the destruction of the Yir Yoront, culturally and perhaps even biologically, is inevitable.

MELANIE DEDECKER Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan)

Streib, Gordon F. An Attempt to Unionize a Semi-Literate Navaho Group. Human Organization Spring, 1952. Vol.11(1):23-31.

This article discusses the unsuccessful attempts to unionize a Navajo agricultural society and the cultural reasons why these attempts were unsuccessful. The Navajo people of the Big Rock reservation had been cultivating farms and raising livestock as a source of income before the Amadillo Natural Gas Company started the construction of a natural gas pipeline across 200 miles of the Navajo reservation. The Navajo agreed to the construction of the pipeline on two premises: 1. “Navahos were to be given preference for both skilled and unskilled work on the reservation; and 2. Navajos were to receive the same wages as non-Navahos doing the same kind of work.” (Streib, 1952) After agreeing to these premises, the Amadillo Company began recruiting skilled as well as unskilled workers for the job. This went against the first premise because the company was not hiring the Navajos for the jobs that they were qualified for. A union was established to protest this pervasion of the agreement between the Amadillo Company and the Navajo people. This union was made up of Navajo laborers of low social and economic status. Along with the status of the workers, only 25 % of the adult Navajo males that made up the majority of the union had any grasp of the English language, making the entire conceptualization of a union difficult to the Navajo workers. The leader of the union was a graduate from the University of New Mexico named Walter Harding. Mr. Harding played a non-ethnocentric role in his endeavors to aid the Navajos through a series of failed western attempts. Harding’s first mistake was to allow the union’s interpreter, Charles Redhorse to present the union’s case to the Navaho Tribal Council. Redhorse began criticizing the Tribal Council instead of adhering to the union’s agenda. This was extremely surprising to the Tribal Council because such outbursts are considered rude and out of character for a Navajo person. The second mistake was Harding’s misunderstanding of the Navajo nature. Navajo are generally soft spoken and slow to shout or anger. Harding desired the Navahos to picket loudly and taunt the Navajo workers who were employed by the company when they stepped into buses to take them to the pipeline site. The Navajo refused to do this because of their strong sense of kinship and wariness for any outside factors. Although the Navaho group was segregated into workers and labor union members, they still had a strong sense of community between them and refused to hurt the opposing opinion in any way, physically or emotionally. While some of the group wanted to strike, they refused to be very outgoing in their endeavors because of the Navaho’s skeptical view of factors outside of custom. While there are many other factors that led to the obliteration of the union, the main reason was the simple misunderstanding of the Navaho people, their pragmatic outlook on life, and their desire to lead a simple, monolithic lifestyle.

TARA ALCAZAR Cornell College (Dr. Alfrieta Parks Monagan).