Skip to main content

Human Organization 1949

Buchmueller, A.D. and George Saslow. Flexible Psychotherapy in Psychosomatic Disorders. Human Organization Fall, 1949 Vol. 8 (4): 5-12.

The overall problem in “Flexible Psychotherapy in Psychosomatic Disorders” is the tendency of patients with psychosomatic disorders to be susceptible to strong psychiatric suggestion. The author gives examples of different therapeutic sessions were individuals with some type of psychosomatic disorder changed their physical states of being by mere suggestion by a trained therapist.

The author basically sets out to prove that the data presented by the therapist mentioned within the article is semi-truthful. He does agree with the therapist in regard that psychosomatic patients can be treated in some ways through suggestion, but these patients should be gradually taught through psychiatric sessions how to fix their on problems from within.

The author constructs his argument by first introducing the readers to two individual patient cases were both patients have been diagnosed with a psychosomatic disorder. The first scenario is a male patient in his early twenties that suffers from severe stomach maladies when under pressure especially when asked to perform in class. After visiting a therapist for the second time, the therapist noted that the man was soft-spoken on every subject except for anything dealing with school, whereas the man would become very uneasy and often hot tempered. At the end of the second interview the therapist suggested to the man to stop showing his emotions so freely in class. The therapist suggestion of inhibited emotion worked for the man. Twenty-two months later the man wrote a letter to the therapist. In this letter the man was happy to report that he was ulcer free and had had no further complications with his stomach. He had successfully made it through school and had started his own dental practice. Through this case one can see that the therapist suggestion to the man to stop exhibiting his emotions so readily in class and to focus more on the work at hand helped him to deal with his stomach problem and ultimately dissolved his ulcer.

The second scenario the author presents in the article is about a teenager who developed an ulcer at age fourteen from what therapist believe was an over protective mother. Psychiatric sessions were set up for the teen to help him in dealing with his many health problems. Interviews were also set up with the mother to help her help her son through his condition. Through talking with trained therapist and following the suggestions of the therapist the boy began to rely less on his mother and more on himself. The boy grew into a man who became able to be less reliable upon his mother and to even map out a career in the United States Marine Corp. The therapist also gave hope to the mother. Through a series of sessions the mother was given the suggestion to stop being so over-protective of her son. The suggestion worked and over a series of twenty-two months she learned to let her son deal with his problems on his own. This case is also a good example of suggestion being used to treat physical maladies. By mere suggestion a sickly teenage boy very dependent upon his mother learned to be self-sufficient and his over-bearing mother learned to cut her strings from her son and let the boy grow up.

The evidence to support the author’s argument is presented in an orderly manner but I am left wondering how exactly the author feels about the question of whether or not therapeutic sessions should be used to help patients with psychosomatic disorders. I find myself wondering if the author feels that these sessions are beneficial or not for these patients. He seems to straddle the line of yes it is good and no it is not it is bad. He suggests that a person should talk to a therapist and be taught to fix his problems on his own when problems later arise. This back and forth behavior of therapy being good and bad makes me feel that I need to give this article a three for unclear view of how therapeutic sessions really make the author feel.

HAYLEY DICKERSON University of Southern Mississippi (Jeff Kaufmann)

Collier, John. The Indian Bureau and Self-Government: A Reply. Human Organization Summer, 1949 Vol. 8(3):22-26.

Anthropologists have the important responsibility of providing the public with accurate information on the issues they study and publish. In this 1949 article, John Collier critiques an essay written by Dr. John Embree concerning the American Indian Bureau. He claims that Embree’s article contains misinformation, non-information, and unintentionally supports legislative raids against Indian social rights and property. Collier outlines his argument into four major parts, and addresses each of his points in a straightforward fashion. He never really proves his case against Embree, and his accusations lack substance.

Collier’s first point confronts the inappropriate use of the War Relocation Authority as an analogy for the Indian Bureau. He claims this analogy is central to Embree’s original argument for Indian Self Government, and he further states that there is no correlation between the two organizations. He points out that the Japanese-Americans were herded by force and confined at length into concentration camps as opposed to the Indians who are self-assembled and vested owners in their communities operating under contracts with the United States of America. Oddly enough, Collier never offers a counter analogy in his critique.

His second point attacks Embree’s misinformation concerning the Indian Bureau. He claims that Embree’s article overstates the level of power and authority the Indian Bureau actually has over areas of Indian life. In fact, he states that it is Embree’s whole conception of the Indian Bureau which is flawed, yet Collier never cites specific examples used by Embree and offers us only a “counter-interpretation” of Embree’s conception. This is a major weakness in Collier’s argument.

The third point claims that Embree’s argument is suffering from cultural lag due to inert ideas. He classifies Embree’s inert ideas as the “Equalizing Fallacy”. Collier underlines this fallacy as one in which the Indians become homogenized in the name of freedom and equality. He further states these principles and ideas are “American Philosophies” and not the ones necessarily shared by the Indians. He next references the danger of this fallacy by citing specific “land privatization” issues as addressed by Embree and their negative long-term effects on Indian culture as observed by Franz Boas.

Finally, Collier’s fourth point insists that Embree unintentionally supports legislation that undercuts Indian contractual rights, property rights, and social rights. He claims that Embree sanctions these “enterprises” due to his intellectual presumptions, although he never cites any new proof. He expects us to rely on his previous three points in order to support the allegations he makes in the fourth.

Overall the article lacked sufficient evidence to support the allegations made, and the writing was vague. At end of Collier’s piece, Dr. Embree offers a rebuttal which he respectively clarifies his work using the same point by point style, and focuses on the areas in which they both agreed. Dr. Embree’s ability to treat both the subject and his critic with dignity and intelligence are testaments to his fine writing ability.

MICHAEL P. FEDOROFF University of Southern Mississippi (Jeff Kaufmann)

Embee, John F., The Indian Bureau and Self Government. Human Organization, 1949. Volume 8. Number 2. Spring. Pages 11-14

The overall concern of this article is the dissolution of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) implying that their presence in Indian affairs negatively affects the ability of the Indians to govern their own territory. This dissolution, according to Embree would lead to the eventual self-government of American Indians. Embree argues that the problems being experienced by Indians and the BIA are not unique to American Indians but to all groups over which the United States government has guardianship.

To support his arguments that the BIA is a hindrance rather than an aid, he points to countries and groups where the United States has had guardianship showing that there have been similar problems of failure. According to Embree, although all these situations are diverse and appear not have many commonalities, however, they share certain social characteristics similar to the BIA. Some of these include the agency’s attitude of freely enforcing their own ideas and systems on the groups and the practice of making people dependent on them. Consequently he recommends that the function of the BIA be reduced and eventually discontinued.

In order to support his claims, he points the activities of another government agency, the War Relocation Authority whose responsibility of guardianship impede the success of the Japanese immigrants. In addition, he carefully outlines the views of the opposing side to his arguments, which give another perspective to the issues. He concludes by recommending a 15-year plan for releasing the BIA of their role as guardians for the Indian people.

JOAN TUCKER University of South Florida (Michael Angrosino)

Embree, John F. The Indian Bureau and Self-Government Human Organization spring 1949 Volume 8 (2): 11-14

John Embree compares the Indian Bureau to several other organizations around the world that are in guardianship positions, of the welfare of dependant people. He uses this comparison as a springboard to jump into his argument for a plan of liquidation for the Indian Bureau.

Embree discusses the War Relocation Authority (WRA) and its director’s attempt to liquidate this agency. He list three areas of resistance which developed when this attempt was made. First, many of the people felt secure under the protection of the government and did not wish to leave the center. Secondly, many of the officials felt that the problem was to complex to for liquidation to succeed. Thirdly, many people felt that the government had an obligation to maintain the WRA center. Embree then notes that Mr. Myer, the director of the WRA, was ultimately successful in his attempt to liquidate the center. He uses this example to demonstrate that liquidation of the Indian Bureau is both possible and reasonable.

Embree then moves on to outline his triple five year plan for the liquidation of the Indian Bureau.

1. The best suited Indian groups would have all supervision eliminated over the first five year period. He points to the West Coast and some Eastern reservations as possibilities.

2. This is the same as the first step but it extends to the next best groups suited for self -governing within the next five year period. He cites the Plains and Pueblo Indians for this step.

3. He limits supervision to a fifteen year period, pushing the last holdouts to be self-reliant by the end of this last five year period.

After setting forth is three step system, he goes on to note some problems that may be encountered. These problems include resistance by certain groups living on the reservations, as well as bureaucrats, land tenure issues, educational needs, the redirecting of welfare funds, issues concerning job security, and voting rights.

Embree makes a compelling case in his article for the liquidation of the Indian Bureau, using a straightforward fifteen year plan to accomplish this goal. He takes a multitude of factors into consideration, including several types of resistance and the reasoning behind them. The optimistic view in this article reflects the view of anthropologists of Embree’s day; it is doubtful that anthropologists of today would set forth such a simple solution for the dismantling of a large organization that effects the lives of so many.

JASON SHEDD University of Southern Mississippi (Jeff Kaufmann)

Honigmann, John. Incentives to Work in a Canadian Indian Community. Human Organization, 1949 Vol. 8 (4): 23-28.

John Honigmann describes the social forces that motivate the Attawapiskat Cree Indians to work. He presents a very descriptive account of the Attawapiskat’s attitude towards work. His description is organized in two main sections. The first section refers to Attawapiskat motivations for working and the second one refers to their reluctance to work in wage labor jobs.

According to Honigmann, the family is the nucleus of social organization in attawaspikat communities where the head of the family, usually a male, is expected to fully provide with the needs of the household. Prestige and public opinion are two influential factors in Attawaspikat notions of work. Prestige can be obtained by hunting, fishing, house building and equipment maintenance. However, the production of meat and fowl is the most important means of prestige. As a result, a man who is considered a “good” hunter will have more options to choose a desirable partner. He will gain a respectful reputation and a sense of security (286). Honigmann mentions that fear of failure and shame play roles as important as public opinion. However, he does not go in further detail to explain exactly how these forces work. In few words Hominagnn states that the Attawaspikat Indian look for jobs that have social importance and bring them positive public opinion.

Wage labor on the Hudson Bay Company, Catholic mission and Indian agency do not offer the already mentioned qualities of prestige and positive public opinion.

Attawpiskat are not satisfied with the wage labor rates. For example, Hominagmm mentions that in 1947 several Indian representatives argued that a wage of 1.50 a day was not in relation with the cost of living. However, Honigmann states that higher rates will not change the Indian attitudes towards wage labor. One reason is that such activities are not considered meaningful as hunting or fishing would. Another reason is the role of whites as employers and Indians as employees, which result in a comparison of standards of living.

The author explains that the disconformities of Indian standards of living come from the fact that their needs are not fully satisfied by what they consider prestigious work. Clearly this is a case where the Attawaspikat social motives are underestimated. 1949 was a time biased towards white people standards. That might be why the disconformities in the standards of living seem more like the author’s interpretation than a reality of Attawapiskat.

Honigmann concludes that motivations for work depend on the values attributed to prestige and social opinion. Finally, the lack of information of wage employers about attawaspikat Indians affects their incentives for work.

GISELA RODRIGUEZ University of Southern Mississippi (Jeff Kaufmann)

Honigmann, John J. Incentives to Work in a Canadian Indian Community. Human Organization. 1949 Vol. 8, No.3 Pages 23-32.

This article is an assessment of the motivations and other social forces that drive the Attawapiskat Cree Indian adult male to work. The Attawapiskat Indians live in Canada, on the west coast of James Bay, Ontario, in conditions that are rugged and ungenerous. While the fur trade has nearly disappeared, many continue to live in subsistence from hunting or fishing and government subsidies. Like many northern Canadian Indians, the Attawapiskat is constantly in debt and, subsequently, local white perception maintains that the Attawapiskat does not work hard, nor is he willing to perform lower wage labor available to him. The author, however, refutes the claims of white employers in a point-by-point analysis that focuses on the cultural and social dimensions of work and what it means to the Attawapiskat. First, the Attawapiskat is most busy during the winter months, trapping, fishing, and hunting, and then makes more time for leisure in the spring and summer months. According to the Attawapiskat, this kind of labor brings prestige to the family and, conversely, other forms of labor do not. In this way, young adult males who gain status through their hunting and fur trapping acumen have the most opportunities to choose among sexually and maritally desirable women. Second, the Attawapiskat carries with him a strong sense of shame and is risk averse; that is, he is not likely to engage in business activities with which he is unfamiliar and which may diminish his status. Third, the claim that the Attawapiskat is reluctant to work for wage labor is not inaccurate. However, wages for labor are insufficient when compared to the price of goods sold. Furthermore, Indians are not paid in cash but are instead given credits against which they are free to purchase any merchandise they choose. Finally, Attawapiskat social organization is misunderstood by white employers. Interfamilial economic cooperation is rare therefore a family member’s serious illness can have drastic consequences for the family. Data for this article was obtained between July 1947 and June 1948 at a trading post in Attawapiskat serving approximately 460 Cree Indians. Interviews and participant observation techniques were employed to collect the data.

JOSEPH LEOPOLD University of South Florida (Michael Angrosino)

Horsfall, Alexander B. and Conrad M. Arensberg. Teamwork and Productivity in a Shoe Factory. Human Organization 1949. Vol. 8(1): 13-25.

In this article, Alexander B. Horsfall and Conrad M. Arsenberg attempt to quantitatively identify the optimal amount of social interaction within a group and the optimal kind of leadership of a group that generates peak productivity. The focus is on the interaction and efficiency of four seven-member teams working alongside one another in the Bottoming Room of the ABC Show Company in 1938.

The Bottoming Room is where the final stages of shoe production take place. Racks of shoes come from the Lasting Room and proceed through five final steps before completion. The four teams located in the Bottoming Room accomplish these final steps. Each team includes two employees, typically female, who trim off excess leather; an employee, typically male, who pounds and grinds the toe and heel of the shoe to smooth overlapping leather; an employee, typically male, who roughens the leather on the bottom of the shoe; an employee, typically female, who inserts a metal strip into the insole of the shoe; and two employees, typically female, who cement in place the sole of the shoe.

The teams work together in an informal organization, allocating work and leisure time and equalizing pay in a manner that is removed from the formal managerial organization of the company. The informal organization is lead by the men in the teams. Each team begins the day with an object that corresponds with a type of shoe. The objects get passed from team to team, and in turn, racks of shoes are passed through each of the teams depending on the object possessed by the team. Because different types of shoes have different levels of difficulty and employees are paid piece-rate, this informal organization equalizes pay and distributes work evenly.

The methodology that the researchers employed was interviewing employees of the Bottoming Room and managerial staff, and intensive participant observation of the activities in the Bottoming Room both work related and social. The observer created an observation chart to use as a tool for accurate observing and recording of the activities among the workers.

The article is organized in nine parts. The first three parts are easy to follow as the authors explain background information about the ABC Shoe Company, basic activities that are preformed in the Bottoming Room, and the mode of informal organization that the teams created. The next five parts consist of the authors attempting to explain how the observer’s organization chart was used for recording data and analyzing data. This large section of the article is very difficult to follow and understand. The authors reproduce several versions of the organization chart that consist of arrows and lines with little other notation. The authors then use obscure equations to explain the relationships exhibited in the charts. This section of the article negatively affects the readability and clarity of the information presented. The final section concludes the article with a note acknowledging the difficulty of the organization chart and brevity of the analysis.

PATRICIA CONDON The University of Southern Mississippi (Jeff Kaufmann)

Horsfall, Alexander B. and Conrad M. Arensberg Teamwork and Productivity in a Shoe Factory Human Organization 1949 Volume 8 Number 1, Winter Pages 13-25

The study examined the social interaction between workers in a shoe factory. The authors were not only concerned with social interaction but with informal social organization of work groups. Although there was a formal structure of organization under which the workers performed their jobs, they developed their own in order to achieve desired outcomes that were beneficial to them. These benefits were often consistent with those derived from the formal arrangement except that the methods were different. This organization allowed them to equalize pay, balance their leisure, and allocate work as the saw it fit. This was however, achieved while operating within the guidelines of the company’s guidelines.

These relationships were not just interactive but also reciprocal. For instance, lead workers balanced the teams’ workloads by allocating the slower teams with easier work and the faster teams with more difficult tasks. This prevented them from having a backlog of work. This was important to the teams on a whole because although they were paid based on the amount of pieces they completed, individual achievement was not rewarded only team results.

This article showed that an “informal” structure has some organization just as a formal one. For instance they had leaders who emerged and fulfill role and they also had a method of keeping record of how work was being allocated.

Horsfall and Arensberg gathered data using participant observation and interviews within the factor. Because of the difficult of the observer to record the data during observation they developed observation charts which the observed used to diagram the activities that took place inside the factory. These charts included the workstations and the processes being carried out. The results were presented both in qualitative and quantitative forms.

JOAN TUCKER University of South Florida (Michael Angrosino)

Hsin-Pao, Yang. Planning and Implementing Rural Welfare Programs. Human Organization, 1949 Vol. 8:17-21.

In the article by Yang Hsin-Pao, the procedures for planning welfare programs are illustrated. He describes the planning of such a program as being very diverse. He begins in section one by explaining that one must first understand the people and the ways of the people before one can decide how to enforce a plan to make the area better.

Section two illustrates how different movements of the program can in fact achieve a great education bonus that may not be the main objective. Sections three and four go on to suggest that advice from experts is especially important when trying to reform another’s economy because sometimes these improvements do not go well with the people of the communities therefore making it extremely difficult to influence the change. The knowledge of the expert and the permission and understanding of the people, make the changeover much easier for everyone involved.

The next section of the article is called the Implementing Period. The author explains, “the best way to implement a plan is to set up a succession of targets or goals to which separate moves directed.” Their first move was to improve and strengthen the local schools and the second was to give as much leadership to the locals as possible.

In conclusion, the author shows that he believes each country’s culture should be thoroughly understood before anyone can come in and change it.

I believe this article was very easy to read and understand, and it was very clear as to what message he wanted to present.

SUMMER CUTRER The University of Southern Mississippi (Jeff Kaufmann)

Hsin-Pao, Yang Planning and Implementing Rural Welfare Programs. Human Organization. 1949 Vol. 8 , No. 3 , Pages 17-23.

This article addresses the issue of planning and implementing rural welfare programs. The larger concern is that while many governmental and nongovernmental agencies are anxious to create cooperatives with rural areas in need of assistance, many of those persons responsible for engaging the process of developing welfare plans were not adequately prepared and their was genuine concern on the author’s part that villagers would shun the benefits of the program. This article, then, is not about a problem as much as it is about a way to design a method for carrying out a plan. There is no argument; however, the author recognizes that ethnographers are subject to all kinds of problems if they are not adequately prepared to conduct fieldwork. Thus, the first half of this article is dedicated to describing how ethnographers should approach their research subjects, in this case those people who are to receive rural welfare. These “steps to planning” include creating worthwhile objectives, listening to specialists who assist in bringing welfare to rural communities on behalf of government agencies, and “talking things over” with members of the community when shaping a welfare plan. The implementation stage dominates the second half of the article. In order for any plan to work, it must be properly implemented. The author recommends researchers begin by introducing elementary school children (with the permission of the local authorities) to the plan, then gradually moving up in age. The author also suggests that researchers enlist local leadership and treat village leaders with respect and remember that the purpose of a rural welfare program is to assist our fellow human beings. Research for this article came largely from anecdotal evidence of the author and community surveys collected in 1948 in rural China (Hui-Gei).

JOSEPH LEOPOLD University of South Florida (Michael Angrosino)

Keesing, Felix M. Experiments in Training Overseas Administrators. Human Organization, 1949 Vol. 8(4):20-22.

Keesing explores the use of “developed experiments” or role playing to supplement orthodox classroom teaching and environments in this article. The use of these methods was relied upon to enhance the study of field techniques. The U.S. military employed this method to train new officers in cultural exchanges of various types in foreign affairs. During WWII these training programs were implemented to help in various arenas such as dealing with local labor usage, correct association with members of the opposite sex, cultural differences in stealing vs. sharing, dealing with local customs and important people in various situations. Keesing feels that these experiments can be useful in many contexts, particularly in preparing graduate students in Anthropology and other various social sciences.

Several developed experiments are outlined in this article, the successes and failures of each are well documented as well as the reactions of the participants. Keesing uses the latter part of this short article to assess the “worth of such projects”. He clearly feels that these can be useful to Anthropology in many contexts. The weaknesses of this approach, the artificial and generalized character of field conditions tempered with ethnocentrism, the lack of context one culture to another, and finally the “graded” aspect of the scenario that is influential in the actions of the participants.

The positive side of this exercise can be seen in the potential effectiveness for training in language, some customs, and the ability to apply knowledge learned in a classroom. It provides opportunity to react to certain problems such as different customs and develop the mind set to think on your feet in different scenarios. Above all Keesing feels that this particular training exercise will simulate what can occur in the field and assist the student in applying classroom knowledge on a basic level thus cementing knowledge and appropriate actions.

Keesing cites the program at Stanford and the one started by Dr. Paul Fejos of the New York Anthropological Society. The article is short and concise, revealing basically a limited set of experience, outcomes and opinions. The idea is creative and fascinating. It could definitely be applied to modern classrooms in various areas. The benefit in the area of Linguistics is very apparent. There would have to be more current research available to make a concrete decision as to the effectiveness of applying it to other areas of study.

MARQUETTA A. SMITH University of Southern Mississippi (Jeff Kaufmann)

Lindemann, Erich M.D. Individual Hostility and Group Integration. Human Organization 1949 Vol. 8 (1) 5-9.

Lindemann writes this article with the intention of addressing some of the prevailing hostility issues and attempts to highlight some possible causes and alleviations of hostility. He writes in the introduction that this issue “is of urgent concern not only to the psychiatrist but every citizen of the world today, because of the rapidly expanding destructiveness of weapons of violence” (5). His purpose is to expound on the concepts involved and possibly offer some solutions to problems caused by hostility. He differentiates the term hostility from that of aggression in that aggression… “referes to acts of mastery, determined manipulation and executive behavior, which may often be quite free from the harmful or destructive quality inherent in hostility proper” (5).

Lindemann goes on to consider man’s biological nature to predate other living beings, however, he asserts that this does not influence or effect levels of hostility but rather the crisis of hostility occurs as a problem only when other human beings are besieged with violence. Lindemann states that no one had isolated any correlation between genetics and hostility, however this was well before the human genome project and much has been studied on the subject since 1949.

Lindemann does a good job of aptly defining the host of psychiatric jargon in his text for non-professionals. He cites the frustration theory, recognized by J. Dollard in 1939, as “interference with goal-directed action, [which] will arouse hostile impulses; that the more severe the interference, the more severe the hostility; and that situations of challenge or loss which involve a frustration are often shown to be followed by a sequence of hostile impulses and actions” (6). He notes that there are acceptable and unacceptable forms of hostility and that it is always focal to identify between forms when assessing individual actions. He also stresses the importance of assessing the root of hostile impulses once provoked. He recalls that not only do primitive forms of hostility such as killing and mutilation occur within our society but also other forms like blackmailing and malicious gossip that take place even within the law (7).

Lindemann goes on to cite several case studies depicting his identifications, which beg for more attention to be paid to the “complicated processes of the development and discharge of emotions in the individual, such as the processes involving hostility described…” (9). He criticizes psychiatrists for evaluating their patients as if they were in a “social vacuum” rather than taking into consideration the complex interactions they encounter regularly. He therefore appropriately foresees the essential application of research from both social psychologists and anthropologists in order to aptly help preventative psychiatry take form.

NATALIE B. ROBERTS University of Southern Mississippi (Jeff Kaufmann)

Lindemann, Erich Individual Hostility and Group Integration Human Organization 1949 Volume 8, Number 1 Winter Pages 5-9

This article discusses the issue of hostility between individuals suggesting that it is understood only in relation to group interaction and not as an individual character trait. Lindemann considers this an “urgent concern” not just for psychiatrists but also for all citizens of the world. It is especially pertinent because of the rapid growth in destructive weapons intended for violence and should be more the focus of study. While psychiatrists have been focusing on hostility, because of the therapeutic nature of their work, social scientists have lagged behind. This study focuses on the assumption that there is an increase not only in individual tendency to violence but also on hostility between nations and groups within them.

Lindemann’s basic argument is that individual hostility can be best understood if it studied within in the context of group interaction. He proceeds to “clarify the concepts involved and suggests possible solutions to the problems created by hostility.” He also differentiates between hostility and aggression. This was done because of the common practice in psychiatry to use the terms hostility, hostile impulses and aggression synonymously. The concept of aggression, according to Lindemann, refers to the manipulation and executive behavior, which free any harmful or destructive quality while hostility is the opposite. He continues by arguing that past studies of hostility have been misguided because they focused their discussion on the basic question of whether hostility is cause by nature or nurture (Cannon (1915). While there are psychological processes that come into play to facilitate hostility, it definitely cannot be explained by genetic predictor. For instance, size may favor hostility not because a particular muscular size makes one prone to hostility but because in social relation, size might be a trigger for hostility. Further, someone with a larger size may use it to his or her advantage in a conflict.

Lindemann also stresses that hostility is learned behavior and therefore may be unlearned. Also each particular act of hostility should be treated as a success. He further refutes the widely accepted frustration theory that people become hostile when there is interference with their goals because not all frustration leads to hostility and not frustration is not sole factor contributing to hostility. Lindemann in making his points for hostility as a learned behavior uses his life experiences and observations from his clinical practice to refute widely held belief about hostility, hostile tension. He also draws on the existing literature in the file of psychiatry using them to support his point of view.

JOAN TUCKER University of South Florida (Michael Angrosino)

Lindemann, Erich (Dr.). A University Psychiatric Hospital. Human Organization. 1949. Vol 8(1): 10-12.

This article is an attempt to outline the ideal psychiatric educational program in part to deal with increased social distabilization caused by the horrors of WWII. In the initial parts of the article the writer attempts to explain this as his reasoning for the article. He broaches, very briefly, upon the current problems found within psychiatric institutions stemming from the separation between physiologists and psychotherapists. Almost without exception the remainder of the article concerns the aforementioned outline.

Lindemann runs through various suggestions including actual hospitals integrating psychiatry into their outpatient programs. He notes many examples where surgeons work in tandem with other specialists and mentions that psychiatry in many ways might not be different. The next point of interest is outlining a physical location and the parameters for an optimal psychiatric hospital modeled after Lindemann’s own. The article continues by outlining briefly the amenities afforded to patients, numbers of employees, and the responsibilities of various specialized individuals and graduate students.

To say that this article would be antiquated to any reader beyond a student writing a paper on structural elements of psychiatric hospitals is an understatement. The worth of this article has most definitely passed. Although it was well written and there can scarcely be found anything to criticize the article on it’s subject matter, as it pertains to 1949, it’s use to psychiatry and the rest of the social sciences is negligible, least of all Anthropology.

GARY ALLEN HAWKINS II University of Southern Mississippi (Jeff Kaufmann)

Lindemann, Erich MD A University Psychiatric Hospital Human Organization 1949 Volume 8 Number 1 Winter Pages 10-12

The article focused on providing a model for establishing a psychiatric hospital at university. The discussion centers on the designing and implementation of that model. Because of the complexity of psychiatry as a discipline, Lindemann argues that makes the task a difficult one. At the outset he acknowledges the difficult of the task by pointing to the historical origins of psychiatry that branches into two directions, studying mental illness as an illness of the central nervous system or the mental illness as disorder of social interactions. It is important to determine which of these two areas the model would take as the address different problems and would have different implications for the how the hospital would focus their practice.

The balancing of research, service, and teaching will be challenging but necessary. This balance is important because too much focus on one can detract from the others. He further discusses the benefits and weakness of these areas to the facility. A Research institute for instance makes great demands on resources making it difficult to keep pace with all the activities involved and this become greater as the facility becomes more renowned. The decision should be made between on having a major focus in research or clinical practice.

Another area of concern is the role of the psychiatrist as an applied scientist or discoverer of information. However, this will be predicated from whether the institution chooses a clinical or research focus. The needs of the community will be the best predictor of whether the facility focuses on research or on service. He warns against the downside of trying to do accomplish both. One is the danger of becoming isolated from other disciplines that are involved with mental illness and mental health such as psychology, social work, nurses and occupational therapists. As a remedy to becoming isolated he advocates for collaboration with these professionals and the incorporation of the students of psychiatry and medicine. He also cautions against overlapping roles with others in the mental health profession. However work teams would alleviate this. Lindemann concludes by making a final plug for including all three areas, service, research, and teaching because they are vital any psychiatric hospital at the university.

JOAN TUCKER University of South Florida (Michael Angrosino)

Mead, Margaret, and Eliot D. Chapple, and G. Gordon Brown. Report of the Committee on Ethics. Human Organization, 1949, Vol. 8 (2): 20-21.

This rather brief article opens with a general history of reports concerning the adoption of a code of ethics made to the Committee during various prior meetings. It is written in the professional jargon of the above authors and is very formal.

The proposed code of ethics would dictate the behavior of applied anthropologists in the roles of individual, citizen, and scientist during peace or wartime. The authors believe that this code is very relevant to all applied anthropologists of any specialty.

The code, itself, is then specifically discussed. Its main point, mentioned repeatedly, is concerned with accountability and responsibility. The responsibility of an applied anthropologist extends to the promotion of “dynamic equilibrium” of human relationships (20). It is also concerned with the achievement of a greater sense of well-being for the subject or subjects. The applied anthropologist , whether working for a fee or on voluntary basis, also has to consider the long time effects of their work.

The article concludes with a summary of the code of ethics proposed for consideration. First, they (applied anthropologists) are to advance human relationships through integrity. Next, they are to maintain professional and scientific integrity and responsibility. Thirdly, they are to respect humans and values. Finally, they are to share (through publication) their findings.

ALAHNA TOIGO University of Southern Mississippi (Jeff Kaufmann)

Montgomery, John D. Administration of Occupied Japan: First Year. Human Organization. 1949 Vol. 8 No. 3 Pages 4-16.

The purpose of this article is to provide an understanding of military government as an agent of change, not to investigate how the occupation of Japan could have gone more smoothly. The larger intellectual concern involves the establishment of future military governments (if necessary) and their ability to work with intact social and cultural structures. The crux of the author’s argument is that while much of the occupation of Japan has gone smoothly, inconsistencies dealing with Japan’s remaining governing structures, mainly local, have caused lapses in policies. More significantly, military authorities knew little of Japanese culture. For instance, understanding Japanese symbolism, spirituality, and myth would provide the military with numerous contact points to smooth the transition from external governing authority to self-government. The primary sources of the author’s research is comprised of historical documents, United States policy papers, congressional reports, United States newspaper editorials and investigative reports, the author’s personal experience, and available government documents. Two case studies emerge in the article. Each focuses on an issue central to the insertion of the military government into Japanese economic and political life.

JOSEPH LEOPOLD University of South Florida (Michael Angrosino)

Sandi, Peter L. A Cultural Approach to Social Work. Human Organization, 1949 Vol. 8: 15-19.

This article by Peter L. Sandi begins by using a quote from Sexual Behavior in the Human Male by Dr. Alfred C. Kinsey and his associates of how culture influences people, especially in the realm of sexual behavior. This leads to a general understanding of how culture contributes to one’s general outcome (15).

The author begins to try to outline the meanings of culture and social work and the impacts of culture in social work. “Phychoculture approach” is an approach toward the understanding of an individual beginning with the parent-child relationship. This approach leads to an example of an interesting relationship between a child’s emotional relationship with his or her parents and the child’s ability to absorb his or her parent’s culture. Each person of the various cultural patterns of the group ultimately declares the parent-child relationship the most important factor (18).

The author concludes by expressing a point by saying, “In casework, just as in medical work, practice is not keeping pace with theory, but it is increasingly apparent that recognition and awareness of cultural norms and the use of them in treatment results in better social adjustments of the client in regard to himself, his family and others.” He also leaves several points to be further studied and clarified.

This article was confusing because the author referred to another book, which then made the underlying points uncertain.

SUMMER CUTRER The University of Southern Mississippi (Jeff Kaufmann)

Sandi, Peter L. A Cultural Approach to Social Work Human Organization, 1949 Spring, Number 2, Volume 8, Pages 15-19

The article focuses on a new trend within the field of social work where social workers are becoming culturally relevant in their practices. Sandi attributes this to social workers have become more aware of the “whole range of scientific knowledge” and is drawing on the works of anthropologist and sociologist and making the applications to their practices. According to Sandi, social workers have started considering the questions about the meaning of culture and the role it plays in the individual behavior. They have also realized that it is impossible to diagnose specific behaviors without taking culture into account.

Sandi, a social worker, supported his claims by using examples of cases in which parishioners are taking culture into account and the outcome were beneficial to the clients. While using case studies as the main source of data, he focused on one case in detail rather than on several cases and only taking small excerpts from each. The extent of cultural relevance, according to Sandi, not only takes into account racial and ethnic factors but also various other aspects of the client’s life. These included the inclusion of familial and religious affiliation.

Sandi further supports his point by reflecting on the way social work and other human service fields have practiced in the past. Their failure to include people culture into account has been to the detriment of the client. Although, the field of social work is making strides in the right direction Sandi believes that they have a long way to go from “the stage of fully understanding of such relationship.

JOAN TUCKER University of South Florida (Michael Angrosino)

Whyte, William Foote. Semantics and Industrial Relations. Human Organization, 1949 Vol. 8(2):4-10

Whyte uses this article to review research he has done in the area of industrial relations. His main focus is on the relationships between executives, unions and workers in several case studies he has done. His research approaches these relationships from various angles by studying general semantics involved. The particular case study is directed at understanding the behavior of executives in industry. He does not make an argument for his study per se. He simply outlines his research, supported by studies in psychology and anthropology, and what conclusions were drawn from the research. This is the first of two articles by Whyte in the 1949 journals. He continues his research in the fall edition of the Human Organization journal.

Whyte looks first at the business executive, his language and actions. He defines the executives in the context of morality first and business second. The executive is bound by morality and ethics in every decision. He feels the need to be right and to make decisions from the focus of being “right” at all times. Whyte looks at these executive decisions as being rationalized by the concept of greater gain in the long term. The executive knows what is best for business. In dealing with unions and workers the executive has the need to maintain a certain power base that is at odds with the needs and wants of the others. The language he uses and the actions he take will necessarily stem from the “moral giant” stand point coupled with a need to maintain the powerbase.

The executive also is described in very dichotomous terms of black and white being unable to separate the worker or union from their work. This reflection of the worker and union does not allow room for error, sickness, or personal problems. In this definition the worker and union are removed personally and conceptualized through work only. If worker Joe has a bad day and produces poorly then he is by definition a poor worker all the time.

When applied across the board to the worker population as a whole this concept leads to power plays that are designed to “reform” Joe Worker or the union, leading to communication break downs and unrest in the work arena. The executives then engage in what Whyte terms causation theorizing. Passing the buck through blaming outside influence, community problems or personal problems was the common action of management. Reflecting on possible internal causes was completely ignored.

These ideas and actions by management lead to communication break downs, decreased production, low morale and in some cases strikes. Whyte views management decisions through what he terms vague abstractions where management is to far removed from the day to day work situation to make informed rational decisions about the workforce.

The solutions to these problems, according to Whyte lie in reconstructing the language and thought patterns of management and workers. Connections have to be made between high level and low level abstractions. The executives and workers must develop a pattern of communication flow that is a true reflection of actual events .Whyte concludes that this communication flow can develop through a new language in industrial relations. He feels there is a desperate need for a new set of symbols, language and actions in industry relations. This task necessarily would fall to research men in human relations departments. This task is advancing quickly according to Whyte, but many more advances are needed. The new language, fully developed and rationally applied would lead to greater progress in industrial relations.

The ideas and language of this article are certainly appropriate for the time frame and context Whyte is presenting. It is well written and easily read. The impact of such studies and the knowledge gained from industry issues at that time would certainly have been invaluable. His concepts of executives as “moral giants” (my term) seems very far fetched from my point of view. Viewing any person as making decisions from a moral standpoint of what is “right” regardless of impact on business seems unlikely. It is a highly interesting article in that it offers a picture of what industry and community were facing during that time period and how relations have developed in different patterns over time.

MARQUETTA A. SMITH University of Southern Mississippi (Jeff Kaufmann)

Whyte, William Foote Semantics and Industrial Relations Human Organization 1949 Volume 8 Number 2, Spring Pages 4-10

The overall concern of this article is the understanding of industrial relations specifically the relations between managers and their workers in workplace. According to Whyte, the behavior of managers in the workplace is governed by a specific way of thinking which characterizes most managers. This is predicated on the premise that language and thought precedes action. Consequently, he sets out to show that there is a pattern of thought and language that is characteristic of managers. So, in the instances when there are misunderstanding in relations between managers and their workers, it not because of any ulterior motive on the part of the manager to be disagreeable but it is because the manager’s actions are driven by a specific way of thinking about various situations.

He therefore lists eight characteristics using examples to illustrate his point of view. These include: 1) moral judgements, 2) identification of a two-value orientation, 3) passing the buck, 4) theories of causation, 5) The map and the territory, 6) the illusion of power, 7) the large and the vague abstractions. Moral judgement means that the businessman has high moral judgements and strong feelings about good and bad. Identification and two-value oriented orientation in this case means that managers can only see things in black and white or as good and bad. Passing the buck refers to a tendency of management to “look for the cause of problems outside the realm of management.” Theories of causation refer to the practice of management to look to outdated theories for solutions to problems. The map and the territory refer to the tendency for managers to take a specific situation and apply it to general terms. The illusion of power means overstating or believing one is more powerful than they really are. The large and vague abstractions means that they are often think too abstractly and so fail to deal with the real issues.

JOAN TUCKER University of South Florida (Michael Angrosino)

Whyte,William Foote. Patterns of Interaction in Union-Management Relations. Human Organization, 1949 Vol. 8(4):13-19

As a continuation of research that was reviewed in the spring volume of Human Organization, Whyte again looks at industrial relations. His main objective in this study is to formulate a frame of reference that would make it possible for organization of data that is part of industrial relations. The purpose of this organization is to possibly frame most of the interactions between management, workers and unions and how they relate. This information would make it possible to recognize problems and pinpoint areas where social change needs to be introduced to cope with these problems. Again Whyte cites studies from psychology and anthropology in basic support of his findings.

The model this frame work is built around consists of a basic scheme of analysis through interaction, actions, sentiments and language of executives, workers and unions. Interaction specifically deals with all aspects of interaction with all levels of persons involved. It is a complex structure of data organized around day to day communications of each section represented. Whyte felt that by organizing and recording an interaction between an executive and a pipe fitter, or a pipe fitter and his foreman he could define communication gaps and fill them accordingly. The necessity of this information is based in a need for communication flow between all three levels that is rational, informed and compromising. The first article that Whyte wrote in this subject detailed in depth the language, symbols, and actions of the executives. By defining the base that each level operates from, Whyte attempts to establish a new set of symbols and language that could be utilized by each level in dealing with day to day interaction.

Whyte sees unions and management as being mutually dependent upon one another; any change in interactions has certain repercussions on both sides. By studying the patterns of these interactions it can be determined where the language and symbol system breaks down. He found that management policy had profound effects on interactions. Soft policy where management concedes to the demands of unions consistently was found to be just as damaging as hard policy where management continued to hold to the power base, no compromise methods. He proposed a method of Union-Management Reciprocity.

In this method management originates action for the union as well as the union originating for management. This development of reciprocity of action origination led to improved interactions. Flow of communication from management to unions can create harmony between those two factors. This scenario can create certain problems on the lower levels when the middle men of management, foremen, feel that this system precludes those originating actions on behalf of the workers. A pressure cooker scenario can develop when this takes place. This can be defused by routing the actions (reciprocity) through a complete cycle that includes all levels. There are various pitfalls that can occur if the chain of action is interrupted or circumvented. Whyte gives a thorough outline of possibilities.

While it has been determined how to achieve and maintain positive interaction in industry Whyte is still researching how to move companies from one point to another in this frame work. Extensive research was being done at this time to ascertain an effective way to successfully accomplish those moves, Whyte and others in this field were engaged in extensive case studies of companies that had completed the move and had managed more successful interactions.

Excellently written, easily read article, his grasp of the overall structure of management-workers-unions applied to his concepts makes for an article that is also easily understood. He very successfully uses anthropology and psychology to support the work he is doing. Looking at the time and context of this article, the impact of his research on business would have been monumental. The only draw back to his research is, again, a tendency to portray executives as “moral giants” (my term). Outside this one area the concepts he was formulating and applying are fascinating.

MARQUETTA A. SMITH University of Southern Mississippi (Jeff Kaufmann)