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Anthropologica (Old Series) 1960

Balikci, A. Some Acculturative Trends Among the Eastern Canadian Eskimos. Anthropologica, 1960. II (2): 139-153.

Balikci offers a description of aspects of socio-economic organization and religious traits in three Inuit groups: Pelly Bay on the Atlantic coast, Porungnituk, and Great Whale River on Eastern Hudson Bay. The data was collected over three survey periods during the summers of 1957 to 1959. The paper also references information from 1918 and 1926. Balikci shows us the effects of technological and religious intrusions into Inuit societies and some of the changes that ensued. Information about the different groups is used to express changes in Inuit society as a whole which Balikci attributes to contact with Western civilization.

In 1918 the Aruiligjuarmiut of Pelly Bay were able to hunt caribou from kayaks in what was their last annual cycle. The summer camp, constituted by four kinship groups, formed an economic unit. Summer camps were smaller and employed a variety of food gathering activities. The meat was shared and there was a hierarchy based on age. The Aruiligjuarmiut practiced witchcraft and expressed a belief in magic. A shaman was the religious leader whose activities were purpose oriented. The shaman had considerable prestige and would act on behalf of the community.

The 1926 annual cycle revealed considerable changes in relation to regular contacts with the Repulse Bay trading post. The introduction of the rifle had a profound effect on their lives. By 1959 co-operative hunting and food sharing had virtually ceased and there occurred a shift toward the nuclear family. There was a synthesis of the old and new religions. Here Balikci draws a direct link between western civilization and Inuit changes.

In dealing with the Povernitormiut of 1930 to 1954 Balikci emphasizes the importance of trapping and trading for survival. The traders had multiple roles in their society, which was kin-based. Group stability was necessary due to collective ownership of whaleboats and wide spread sharing. After 1956 however, significant change occurs. Balikci accredits this to a considerable increase in cash income. There was a balance between use of local resources and reliance and imported goods. Christianity and mechanical curing techniques replaced the shaman. Universalization into a market economy created social change.

Balikci finally addresses the Great Whale River Inuit of East Hudson Bay of 1957. He attributes change to the integration of an outside economic project. Labourers were able to earn a high income and two occupational groups with different cultural systems emerged. This new economy led to a considerable breakdown in the traditional economy. Those who resisted employment were no longer able to interact with the labourers in a traditional manner. Group hierarchy was leveled by the new economy. This reality permeated all three groups of the study. Balikci show us examples of indigenous societies overcome by western colonial systems.


DAVID MIONE York University (Maggie MacDonald).

Chard, Chester S. The Neolithic in Northern Asia: a Culture Area Approach. Anthropologica, 1960. 2(2): 240-248.

Chard summarizes the cultural groupings of the Neolithic in Northern Asia. Neolithic is defined as “a pre-metal culture stage possessing pottery. No implication of the presence of food production is implied”. Chard sections off northern Asia into three spheres or

“primary cultural areas” which are labelled East-Central, Pacific and Western. The scheme is based solely on the cultural evidence available and does not factor in geological or ecological factors which may be significant. The primary culture areas are then broken down into secondary areas, which are categorized as “a distinctive major cultural hearth whose influence affected a sizable territory”. A basis for an even further classification referred to as “tertiary culture areas” are classified by the “existence of definite regional varieties of cultures”. The tertiary areas may be regions where social affiliations have been willingly or forcibly changed or dominated by one group or another. There are many unknown archeological regions in northern Asia such as the Taimyr Peninsula, the valley of the Lower Tunguska and Dzhungaria, such areas are indicated with question marks on the map provided with the article.


JOHN BUTT York University ( Maggie MacDonald)

De Lint, Jan and Ronald Cohen. One Factor Magic: A Discussion of Murdock’s Theory of Social Evolution. Anthropologica, 1960. II(1): 95-104.

De Lint and Cohen deconstruct the weaknesses in G.P. Murdock’s theory of social evolution, as described in his Social Structure. Murdock’s ‘closed-system’ theory creates relationships between the parts of social structure, excluding the role of external influences. This relies on the idea that a change in one part of a social structure can instigate a series of changes in other parts. By tracing Murdock’s reasoning, this “one-factor magic” is shown to be an alluring, albeit limited, form of analysis.

Murdock’s “magical factor” is patterns of residence. He claims that changes in residence patterns alter the relationships between people, and then the rest of society. The way Murdock constructs his argument, however, shows that his rule of residence is not consistently accurate. In his discussion of conditions affecting neolocal, bilocal, matrilocal, and patrilocal residence patterns, for example, Murdock says that monogamy, poverty, and the nuclear family are factors that can actually encourage a shift towards neolocal residence in particular. This illustrates the contradiction in Murdock’s argument; changes in individual relationships are shown to precede changes in residence patterns rather than vice versa.

This contradiction is further highlighted in the discussion of the consequences of changes in residence patterns. While Murdock says that factors affecting the emergence of neolocal residence also affect the emergence of the nuclear family, the authors point out that neolocal residence is later described definitively as “resulting” in the presence of the nuclear family. This renders Murdock’s argument highly ambiguous.

Compounding this circular argument, Murdock’s classification of kinship organization also has discrepancies. He starts with eleven types of organization and divides them by the residence rule to produce forty-seven, yet when the authors apply Murdock’s rule fully, only seven classifications result instead of the original eleven.

While capable of illustrating relationships between parts of a social structure, the ‘closed-system’ model and “one-factor magic,” are seen to be limited. These notions may be a reflection of contemporary methodology, inaccurately depicting the reality of social evolution.


AYSHA KHAN York University (Maggie MacDonald).

Harp, Elmer Jr. Archaeological Research in Arctic North America: 1958 – 1960. Anthropologica, 1960. 2(2): 228 – 239.

The article by Elmer Harp Jr. focuses on the archaeological research completed by archaeologists who have done research in Alaska, Northern Canada, and Greenland during the summer months from 1958-1960. The article also recognizes the many companies that have granted funding for the projects to be completed. Harp also reveals findings that have been excavated by the corresponding archaeologists. Yet, Harp minimally comments on the archaeological research completed in the three areas, and he concentrates on the amount of excavations researched. To the author, this is seen as an excellent occurrence since Canada possesses a large amount of Arctic land, and not much research has been accomplished.

The author begins with the numerous archaeologists that have contributed to the projects in Alaska and the artifacts that have been found. Harp comments on the specific studies that have been completed in parts of Alaska consisting of Central and Southern Alaska. The writer also mentions particular archaeological findings in Alaska including two large oval houses of the Choris culture, that is estimated to be 3000 years old, findings of consistent evidence of cultural materials, and early lithic objects from open hunting sites.

Harp continues by investigating the northern area of Canada including the Yukon Territory and the NorthWest Territories. The author goes on to mention the many archaeologists that have contributed to the findings as well as the scholarly institutions that the archaeologists have come from. Harp points out the archaeological evidence signifying that there are 6 new Flint Creek parts that differ up to 150 specimens in the Yukon Territory. This suggests that this is now recognized as a separate unit from that of New Mountain.

In the NorthWest Territories, Harp mentions 42 new sites dealing with river crossings between the lakes. The author also briefs that the Sadlermiut species became extinct in 1903 from starvation through evidence given by two highly recognized universities. From evidence by the National Museum of Canada, he also states that there are visible similarities of Greenland’s small tool tradition carried out in the Canadian Archipelago.

The final location that Harp comments about is Greenland, revealing numerous archaeological sites, which archaeologists aided upon from the National Museum of Denmark. Archaeologists have researched that there is a neo-Eskimo site with semi circular tent houses and another site where antler and bone artifacts are present.

From the author’s perspective of reviewing the many excavations in the summer months from 1958-1960, Harp is aware of the many archaeologists who have participated in the several excavations in the Arctic North. He concludes that regardless of the few archaeological findings, new recruiters must participate in exploring the unknown for future reference.


CARMELINDA GALOTA York University (Maggie MacDonald).

McFeat, Tom F.S. Some Social and Spatial Aspects of Innovation at Zuni. Anthropologica, 1960. 2(1):18-47.

The article by McFeat addresses culture changes that occurred in the Zuni of New Mexico over a period of time from 500 A.D. to the1960’s. It also deals with the social implications of these changes. As McFeat argues, stable cultural growth that occurred in the region is inseparable from its innovators, the older men of the community. These men were the repressive authority in the society. The organic authority, which is the set of principles that constitutes the worldview of the population in Zuni, legitimized the repressive authority of the men.

The author explains the inseparability of the repressive and organic authorities by the concept of roads. In the article he argues that the “authorities innovators” maintained the stability of cultural growth by combining the two authorities together. The concept of roads, the main ones being the Good Road and the Long Road, is presented in Zuni culture as ways of life. The Good Road is considered to be the organic authority, as it stresses cooperativeness, harmony, and integration. The Long Road, with its emphasis on coercion and fear, has repressive implications. The two roads are indivisible in Zuni, and repressive authority can be seen in terms of leaders, and organic in terms of the worldview.

In examining the change in the culture McFeat draws on evidence from the archeological records. From 500 A.D. until 1500 A.D. they illustrate such features as the rapidity of change, enlargement of the community, recurrent fissions, which were mostly internal, and centralization and approximation. By looking at four major sites over the specified period the author indicates disappearance of Great Kivas – the authoritarian center of the community. Another significant change is the appearance of the system of close communication between dwellings. Those factors point toward the integration of the community and the importance of the community as a whole. The change would not be possible if people were not adjusted to he conditions of it, which were reflected in the quality of authority. Organic and repressive authorities stood at the base of this integration. Priests were the ones who curbed the community as well as performed the collective role. Organic authority, being a concept of the relationship between persons and groups, dealt with the management of the increased community and legitimized the repressive authority.

The author uses the idea of Directions, which served to institute the relationships among the society, to demonstrate legitimization of the repressive authority by the organic worldview. The older men -the repressive authority – created directions but they were building on the larger set of values that comprised the organic authority. As the article argued, the older men of the community were responsible for innovations in social spheres that gave people stability in the process of change.


JULIA MIKHAYLOVA York University (Maggie MacDonald).

Oschinsky, Lawrence. Two Recently Discovered Human Mandibles from Cape Dorset Sites on Sugluk and Mansel Islands. Anthropologica, 1960. II (2): 212-227.

(Note: In our contemporary context Inuit has replaced Eskimo.)

The article is about the 1958 findings, by W. E. Taylor, of two human mandibles (lower jaws) found in the area of Cape Dorset in the Canadian Arctic. These present comparable characteristics to an earlier find, in the Payne Bay area, which consisted of a mandible, along with a cranium and parts of the postcranial skeleton. Analysis of the Payne Bay specimens linked those human remains to the Inuit group, consequently making it highly probable that the new discoveries at Cape Dorset are themselves of the same ancestral origin. These discoveries are of great importance in that they locate the ancestral lineage of the Dorset people who were discovered by Jenness in 1925.

Through numerous morphological assessments of the specific specimens, followed by data comparisons with other archeological findings of human remains, the author argues that because Inuit people have very specialized physiological characteristics unique to their culture, such as the morphological trait of mandibular torus (which is a thickening of bone on the inside of the mandible) among others, these make for clear classification markers. Consequently, these traits are perhaps better suited as a gage when analyzing and determining ancestral origin than would be the blood typing method or the metrical data method, both of which are highly unreliable when working with antiquated specimens.

As evidence, the author provides two tables illustrating samples of diverse human groups whereby the occurring percentage of the presence of mandibular tori in each group is calculated. What these tables show is that this feature is most predominant in the Inuit groups, reiterating the main argument that the occurrence of morphological traits in archeological specimens may be more indicative in determining their genetic source than the often scientifically preferred practice of collecting metrical data for comparisons. As further support, the article ends with a photographic comparison between different Inuit and Amerindian skulls, as well as photographs of the Cape Dorset mandibles and the Payne Bay skull.


ELIZABETH MORIN York University (Maggie MacDonald).

Oschinsky, Lawrence and Roy Smithurst. On Certain Dental Characteristics of the Eskimo of the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Anthropologica, 1960. 2(1): 105-112.

This study was conducted to determine the dentition of Eskimos in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Included in this article are a map and the list of settlements that were visited in the course of this study. Oschinsky and Smithurst performed their work in this area because there have only been studies of this particular subject in other areas such as Greenland and the Aleutian Islands. They believed that it would be important to study the presence of shovel-shaped incisors and lateral incisor crowding, and compare it with those of previous studies in different areas.

What their studies found was that there were many similarities in the dentition of the Eskimos as compared to the dentition of other races, who had considerably different dentition traits. They believed that the trait of having shovel-shaped incisors was a common feature for Mongoloids. Included in this study was an analysis of shovel-shaped incisors that was performed in a study during 1911. The purpose of including this early data was to compare shovel-shaped incisors with those of other studies. To be able to compare this data, Oschinsky and Smithurst constructed a chart that listed the number of people with shovel-shaped incisors. The results of this data revealed that almost 100 percent of the Eskimos in Canada had these particular incisors.

In conclusion, Oschinsky and Smithurst found it very interesting that such a large number of people in such a wide area had exactly the same characteristics relating to their dentition traits. This indicates that characteristics of polygenetically human features are less likely to change in areas in which the people do not repeatedly change their location in large populations.


KATIE PAVRI York University (Maggie MacDonald).

Oswalt, Wendell H. & Van Stone, James W. The Future of the Caribou Eskimos. Anthropologica, 1960. II(2):154-176.

The Caribou Eskimos in the Keewatin District of the Northwest Territories are the largest group of Canadian Eskimos that have maintained much of their own way of life. Even so, their society is changing quickly and in profound ways. Historically, Canadian Eskimos have been dominated by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Hudson’s Bay Company as well as the Anglican and Roman Catholic missions. The Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources has concerned itself with restoring autonomy to the Caribou Eskimos as Canadian citizens.

Oswalt and Van Stone submit recommendations based upon anthropological research, and are mandated not to “subjugate or exploit” the natives in question. Furthermore, The Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources has recently begun to recognize the needs of the Caribou people. Social safety nets (including housing), economic stability, improved education, health services and the need for employment have been identified as the key issues. Also, the authors advise focussing long range planning on developing a mixed wage and subsistence economy as well as the creation of substantial education programs. The possibility of cultural assimilation remains real, though natives would like to retain their own identity.

The creation of village councils is proposed as a means of returning power to the Caribou Eskimos, thus placing economic control in the hands of the people. Consequently, that may address some of the social problems related to a more centralized population and the resulting disruption of subsistence patterns. Furthermore, many police duties could be transferred to the community as soon as a local government is established. Once an education system is in place, it is suggested that it be controlled by indigenous people, serving adults and children alike and addressing the needs of a changing community. The creation of a co-operative, community owned store is recommended as it would introduce competition in the local market and illustrate the workings of a cash economy. Likewise, a reliable postal service is indicated, as it would allow for the administration of governmental activities, provide access to mail order retailers and also provide contact with the outside world.

It is acknowledged that some people may wish to relocate to different arctic areas where there are new job opportunities. Others may want to move to urban centres, and re-adjustment programs are needed to help with the necessary transition. More educational opportunities would be available. Not only could natives become more integrated as Canadians, but they would also acquire skills that would be beneficial to self-leadership.

Finally, field personnel would be required to help implement the above recommendations, and they would need to be egalitarian in their approach to avoid the repetition of past injustices. Through native access to the benefits of Canadian citizenship within a strong, independent, traditional community, the federal administration’s objectives may be realized.


KURT HOWLETT York University (Maggie MacDonald).

Pi-Sunyer, O. Religion and Witchcraft: Spanish Attitudes and Pueblo Reactions. Anthropologica, 1960. 2(1): 66-75.

In this article, O. Pi-Sunyer argues that similarities between indigenous Pueblo people’s traditional practices of supernaturalism (religion and witchcraft) in New Mexico and the Spanish colonists existing cultural perceptions of witchcraft, contributed to the misinterpretation of important ritual aspects of indigenous religious beliefs as witchcraft. Existing European cultural knowledge and understandings of witchcraft in the sixteenth and seventeenth century provided the frame of reference for colonial policy and action.

The author demonstrates that the differences in the attitude of the colonial clergy towards what was considered to be witchcraft and what was considered paganism or heathenism greatly informed Spanish colonists treatment of the indigenous peoples of New Mexico. The Spanish clergy viewed a pagan as one to be pitied and converted; it was believed to be the duty of the missionary to convert the pagan with “gentle” persuasion rather than force. Pi-Sunyer argues that because key features of the Pueblo people’s religion visibly paralleled current European understandings of witchcraft, colonists and missionaries failed to differentiate between indigenous religious practices and witchcraft. As well, the European association of heresy with witchcraft positioned the witch as a dangerous threat to both church and state which necessitated immediate identification and elimination.

By drawing on accounts of missionary efforts in Mexico, the author illustrates how initially the attitudes of the colonists and missionaries in Mexico towards native peoples and indigenous religious beliefs greatly differed from of that of New Mexico. In Mexico colonists and missionaries interpreted indigenous religious practices and beliefs as “heathenism” rather than witchcraft, due to the elaborate and highly organized nature of religious symbols, rituals and belief systems. Consequently, missionaries and colonists in Mexico viewed the indigenous people as “heathens” who had the potential to become religious subjects and whose temples could become centers for Christian worship. In contrast, in New Mexico colonial attempts to inhibit the expression of native religious ceremonies were accompanied by physical persecution and punishment, including the destruction of all religious and ceremonial paraphernalia.

Pi-Sunyer concludes that the failure of Spanish colonists and clergy to clearly differentiate between native religious practices and witchcraft led them to treat both in a similar manner. The author points out that historically, this has resulted in Pueblo religion and culture having been driven underground.


SARA GRANDINETTI York University (Maggie MacDonald).

Slobodin, Richard. Eastern Kutchin Warfare. Anthropologica, 1960. 2(1): 76-94.

The Eastern Kutchin became known to early European Explorers as “The Quarrellers,” roughly translated to mean ‘those who look for enemies.’ There are two Eastern Kutchin bands spread throughout the Mackenzie River Basin that Slobodin focuses on; the Arctic Red River and the Peel River bands. This article was written from his field work in 1938-39 and 1946-47 depicting the practice of warfare among these people. His article is divided into sections each defining a step of the warfare process. These begin with a look at the self-identity of the Kutchin as quiet equable people, always ready to defend themselves, to the history of the start of hostilities followed by war preparation, weaponry, the raid, and reasons for the cessation of hostilities.

There are three possible explanations given for the opening of hostilities between the Kutchin and the Eskimo; a contest of hunting magic, a deception upon an Eskimo by a Kutchin, or lastly the rape of a Kutchin girl by an Eskimo. Slobodin claims that it is a pattern of raid and revenge that has developed. Next he talks of war preparation, this included; the picking of the war party, adornment of pelts, feathers and body paint, the making of medicine to give invisibility of one to his enemies, and the making of weapons. The raid is described as brutal and thorough, leaving only one survivor whose purpose was to spread word of the fearsomeness of the Kutchin. The Kutchin defense measure was to send their young men down river to scout for Eskimo and other invaders. Slobodin depicts two reasons for the stop of the fighting around 1856, the introduction of missionaries who influenced the Kutchin to leave their tradition of warfare, and the beginning of the fur trade which proved to be more prosperous than raiding.


HEATHER NICHOLS York University (Maggie MacDonald).

Wallace, Anthony F.C. and Robert E. Ackerman. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Mental Disorder among the Polar Eskimos of Northwest Greenland. Anthropologica, 1960. Vol. II(2):249-260.

Wallace and Ackerman present the mental disorder known as pibloktoq, a disease compared to hysteria, which is present mainly among Polar Eskimos [sic] in Greenland. The reason for their research is that the disease has received a lot of attention but not a sufficient amount of study.

Wallace and Ackerman outline the background of the Polar Eskimos [sic], noting that a reason for the disorder present in their culture may be due to the isolation of their cultural group. They discuss some of the explorers that investigated the Northwest of Greenland from the 1850s into the late 1940s. Research commonly found that the causes of pibloktoq are linked with poor nutrition, principally lack of calcium.

The authors note that pibloktoq is “not well defined” but attempt to explain the points of its infection through the prodromal stage, the attack stage, the terminal stage and the recovery. There is usually no memory of the attack, and some Eskimos [sic] suffer from many attacks during their lifetime while others only experience one attack.

The etiology of pibloktoq was studied by A.A. Brill, a student of Freud, who first deemed the illness to be caused by sexual deprivation. Brill’s theory was carried forward by another researcher, Gussow, who “[regarded] pibloktoq as an expression of the Eskimo [sic] temperament reacting to psychological insecurity.” Scandinavian investigators concentrate closely on the nutrition of the Polar Eskimos [sic], and also noted that there was a similar disease in animals, reviewed by a veterinarian, Baashuus-Jessen.

The final area of the article by Wallace and Ackerman focuses on a program of study for pibloktoq. They outline the measures to be used when collecting the data, as well as the points to be avoided while analyzing the figures. Wallace and Ackerman propose to test the validity of other diseases with similar symptoms. They also discuss a way to discern Eskimos [sic] who are prone to pibloktoq, and those who are pibloktoq free. The researchers hope to find their own reasons for the disease with the help of neuropsychiatry and genetic coding and plan to develop a research model that can be applied to other mental disorders with pibloktoq used as an example.


LEAH ARIANO York University (Maggie MacDonald)

Willmott, W.E. The Flexibility of Eskimo Social Organization. Anthropologica 1960. 2(1): 48-59.

Wilmott explores how Eskimos are characterized by being a flexible society. The data is collected by looking specifically at a community on the east coast of Hudson Bay where most Eskimos live. Willmott proves his point by stating that Eskimos are flexible in the areas of family organization, kinship terminology, community organization, and recreation. Any household in the local unit can fulfill the necessities of life such as food, clothing, shelter and sexual gratification, determining that the household is flexible. Adoption is also used to aid group survival and distributes children among various households. Kinship terminology highlights the personal nature and closeness of the bonds between two people as opposed to their actual kin relationship. In the area of Port Harrison, there are three distinct patterns of community organization: the organized camp, the loosely conglomerate camp and the settlement. Community patterns have been able to alter numerous times in a few short decades, each time adjusting to the economic situation. Eskimos used borrowed forms of recreation such as card playing, checkers and square dancing. These forms demonstrate how Eskimos are able to incorporate westernized traditions and create their own flexible versions of activities.

Flexibility at Harrison has to do with the fact that white contact with Eskimos has been fairly free of conflict. Changes introduced by `whites’ were not seen as a threat to the community, but rather as a factor of environment to which the Eskimos must adapt, as they normally do in a difficult physical atmosphere. The Eskimos’ attitude towards the environment is that “nothing can be done”. This is because they are used to being dominated economically, socially and politically by `white’ people. The two theoretical problems that arise when looking at flexibility in the Eskimo society are the integration of each social unit in the society and the relation between flexibility and integration. Eskimo social organization is distinguished by what Honigman has called flexibility- a lack of strictness and worth related with customary ways of doing things. Flexibility has permitted acculturation to continue with relative lack of conflict. It generates the crisis of lack of control by the Eskimos over many aspects of their society- economic organization, education, religion and political power – that are presently in the hands of `whites’.


MARK KAY York University (Maggie Macdonald).

Wright, J. V. The Middleport Horizon. Anthropologica, 1960. II(1): 113-121.

J. V. Wright’s article describes the excavations and the examination of earlier or “ancient” Native American site in Southern Ontario. It provides an analysis of evacuation processes of Iroquois sites while using the Middleport site as an example. The Middleport site is dubbed a “horizon” because it is important of two levels. Firstly, the significance of the site – the qualitative aspect, and secondly, in terms of the number of items found at the site – the quantitative aspect. The aim of Wright’s investigation is to attempt to recreate or formulate an idea about the living patterns of the earlier Iroquois who settled the Middleport site. It is only appropriate to examine the living standards of earlier groups in order to make accurate comparisons with later or modern ones.

Through his analysis, Wright wants to point out that the inhabitants of the Middleport site were a small group who lived “simple” lives. Their “simple” living can be suggested through the camp’s location by the edges of water sources for simple fishing and on flat plains for petty farming. Furthermore, their locations indicate that they were on peaceful terms with members of other settlements.

The research is done with the excavation and analysis of materials situated on the sites. The artifacts that are uncovered form the basis of assumptions or inferences about the culture of the people who lived in the Middleport area. This physical evidence helps in the construction of the lifestyle of the early Iroquois. While using pottery as the main source of analysis, a comparative examination is done with the pottery found from other sites. Such comparison is represented on two diagrams. This is done to see whether these different groups had certain things in common. A map is also provided to illustrate the Middleport site in location to other sites.

This brief study of the Middleport sites is very thorough in nature because of the amount of information presented. The short analysis of pottery and other artifacts found on the sites brings an insight into the lives of the area’s inhabitants.


EUGENE AMOAKO York University (Maggie MacDonald).