Human Organization 1945

An Intensive Campaign in Agricultural Extension. Human Organization, 1945. Volume 4 (3): 31-37.

This article details an experiment done in Waldo County, Maine regarding agricultural extension work, within the realm of farm family nutrition. The article describes why the experiment was pertinent, how it was conducted, the subsequent results and contains a brief evaluation of those results. Extension workers determined that in Maine, many farm families diets did not include adequate nutrition, and thus organized a brief, intensive program to influence the eating habits of 233 families in an attempt to persuade them to change their diets.

Most of the communities in Waldo county ate meals deficient in nutritional value, usually consisting of meat, potatoes and pie or cake. It was decided that to enhance this diet extension agents would encourage families to expand their vegetable gardens with a focus on increasing the production and consumption of kale, as well as using whole grain or enriched flour.

The community was divided into a test and a control group, so as to enable the evaluation of differing extension methods. In the control group usual extension methods were used to infiltrate information, via radio, bulletins and news stories. In the test group the usually extension methods were used, as well as selecting females to be ‘neighborhood-leaders,’ training them in giving demonstrations, conducting meetings and providing supplemental nutritional information to their neighbors via meetings.

To quantify results the families were surveyed prior to the experiment, summer 1941, just after the experiment, summer 1942 and one year after the conclusion of the experiment, summer 1943. The families were assessed based on now much kale was raised, tomatoes were canned, squash and cabbage stored and how adequate their vegetable gardens were. Both groups had positive results; however, results were staggeringly better in the test groups, neighborhood-leaders were ascribed credit for this influence.

The final section in this article contains critiques of the experiment, detailing that which could be altered for improved future success. The main faults of this program were that it was too short and, in connection, although promoting and educating from the top-down was effective, it did not produce long lasting results. It was also determined that the families had strong prejudices against changes in their diets, and that kale was particularly hard to promote because it was a colloquial term for a chronic and annoying weed. Another critique was that only women were selected as neighborhood-leaders; and thus, communicated most of their information to neighboring women and ultimately had a difficult time convincing their male counterparts to change their eating habits.

CLARITY: 5
LINDSEY HOUGHTON University of Wisconsin-Madison (Larry Nesper)

Brown, G. Gordon. War Relocation Authority; Gila River Project; Rivers, Arizona; Community Analysis Section. Human Organization Fall 1945 Vol. 4:1-23

In this second half of this article, the author deals mainly with the organization of the centers in the Gila River Project. Important areas of discussion included community government including the councils and how they operated. Important areas/concepts discussed under this heading were legislation, executive boards, committees, various commissions, communication, and the regulation of conflict. The author discusses what was achieved in these areas and the relative importance of them in each of the centers.

Clubs and societies, and religious organizations are also discussed. Clubs and societies are discussed in relation to their Japanese or American affiliation among other traits. It illustrated the division of Issei and Nisei along these lines as well. Japanese activities included Engei-Kai societies (plays), verse recitation, dance, and athletics like Sumo and Judo. American activities included membership to the YMCA, YWCA, and the YBA and their activities. Dances, youth clubs (Boy/Girl scouts etc.) and American sports were also popular American activities.

Religious organizations are divided mainly into Buddhist and Christian and are discussed in relation to the possibility of their political influence. It was found that the majority of the community members were Buddhist, though many claimed to be Christian to be viewed more ‘favorably’. It was concluded that regardless of the type of Buddhism or Christianity the community members were affiliated with that there was no significant political influence.

The last four topics discussed in the article were employment and labor problems, cooperation and conflict, relocation, and comments on administration. The first section illustrated various employment and labor related problems including the effect of guaranteed food and shelter had on the willingness of workers to take responsibility. Cooperation and conflict revolved around generational issues, distrust of medical facilities/personnel, and suspicion of motives and the fear of relocation. Relocation discussed the various concerns and feelings of the community concerning relocation and how these were dealt with and the relocation acted upon. The comments on administration concerned the nature of the administration and its abilities, limitations, successes and failures in general.

Lastly some information about the location of the project is given and the effects of that location are briefly speculated. There is also an extensive appendix.

CLARITY: 3
SARAH R HUSTON University of Wisconsin – Madison (Larry Nesper)

Brown, G. Gordon. War Relocation Authority; Gila River Project; Rivers, Arizona; Community Analysis Section. Human Organization Fall 1945 Vol. 4:1-23

The essential purpose of this analysis is to explain the basic function of the War Relocation Authority, and the inner workings of the Gila River Relocation Center. The Relocation Center was a facility built during World War II used to house Japanese evacuees. This article was primarily produced for someone who would be familiar with the central ideas of a relocation camp, hence, a list of terms were defined before the author gets very far into the article. “Issei”, “Nisei”, and “Kibei” are three of these defined terms. They are important to note because they represent the three different ways members of these relocation centers were classified.

After defining the list of words, the analysis then goes on to list the 39 reports that had been submitted by the Analyst at the Gila River Relocation Center. The Community Analyst is the person who actually goes to work in the Relocation Center to write the report regarding the Center, as well as a range of assignments such as interviewing applicants for segregation. After the listing of the reports, the article goes on to describe the intentions of the writing the report. There were two main reasons that gave the purpose of this report: one was to divulge the “aims, methods, and techniques of community analysis”, the second was to find out if doing a community analysis was of any value to the War Relocation Authority.

The next section of the article is a “Community Analysis”. First, a brief description of the history of the Community Analyst is given. The article goes on to describe the staff assisting the Community Analyst, and further on to the method used, the techniques that were applied (including observation, case studies, records, statistics, and interviews), and in addition, the “practical procedures” section that described how the analyst would gain the trust of the members of the Relocation Project in order to obtain their opinions regarding different matters of the camp. This particular section also gives a description of the interactions between the analyst and the administration of the Gila River project.

The next main section of the article is entitled “The Social Organization of a Relocation Center”. In this section, the history of the organization is given, (including how many people were included in the camp, where they came from, and the basic structure of the camp), followed by a description of the people in the camp (including backgrounds and attitudes of the people). The next part of this section gave several case studies, where residents of the camp were closely interviewed to learn about these people’s individual backgrounds, as well as their opinions on the camp. After the case studies, a more specific description of the administration behind the project was given, including an explanation of the organization, as well as their attitudes and policies. The next part of the section focuses on how the Center is organized.

The above description was just the first half of an article written regarding the Gila River Project. The article serves as a guide to the way a relocation camp center was organized.

CLARITY: 3
AIMEE HUGL University of Wisconsin-Madison (Larry Nesper)

Dexter, Louis A. O.P.A.; A Case Study In Liberal Priggishness. Human Organization 1945. Vol. 4: 32-33.

The article explores the difficulties that businessmen have had in dealings with the Office of Price Administration, and that these difficulties often stem from the O.P.A.’s public relations shortfalls, liberal shortsightedness, and/or inability to interpret the regulations that govern their office. There were many businessmen who voiced their negative views of the O.P.A. in response to the passing of the Price Control and Rationing Regulations. Dexter had the opportunity of seeing things from the businessman’s standpoint, and it is reflected in his view.

It is Dexter’s colleagues that have put forth the opinion that the O.P.A. is an unreliable resource when attempting to interpret and comply with the regulations the O.P.A. is in place to withhold. He gives several reasons for this. Dexter and his colleagues believe that the O.P.A. is caught in red tape, will not communicate effectively, and its representatives are often rude. Representatives at the O.P.A. often cannot even interpret the regulations that they are there to uphold. And answers to questions are ambiguous, if

there is anyone who can be located to give an answer at all.

Dexter also expresses his distaste for policy changes, the extra paperwork, and the extra hours needed to apply the proper practices. He claims that as soon as a regulation is to be passed, the head of the faction in charge changes, and the entire regulation is therefore changed. This, along with other compliance exercises done every month, leads to up to ten percent in business overhead costs being absorbed by compliance.

It is Dexter’s opinion that the economists and lawyers that gave the O.P.A. its start regarded liberal businessmen with disrespect. These businessmen in turn reacted with hostility in their opinions of the O.P.A. This lack of either side to be able sympathize with the other has blocked the effectiveness of the O.P.A. and is further exemplified by the opinions expressed in this article.

CLARITY: 4
CHRIS COON University of Wisconsin-Madison (Larry Nesper)

Gardner, Burleigh B and Whyte, William F. The Man in the Middle Position and Problems of the Foreman. Applied Anthropology: Problems of Human Organization, Spring, 1945 Vol. 4 (2):1-28.

The rise of industrial technological advancements and the reorganization of management tasks and authority present a challenge in the stability and function of a team of workers. Behavioral patterns dramatically fluctuate as a result of interpersonal relations in the work force. Companies are now forced to examine human relations to increase production and remain profitable. Machinery, however much of it may have been automated, must still be operated under human control. This in turn leads to the necessity for supervision. The archaic structure of the industry remains intact where subordinate workers remain under the authority of a foreman; yet at the same time the infrastructure of authority has been dismantled and formerly menial tasks have been redistributed at higher levels of management.. Expansion and mass- production then creates the necessity for various levels and branches of management. The company now functions as an independent society. It is for these reasons that Gardner and Whyte introduce the problematic situation of relations of human beings in industry.

The research parallels previous studies conducted by the government yet the analysis is original. An emphasis is placed on understanding workers’ role and function in industry as a unique social system. The study is an attempt to present a feasible approach that will establish the most effective teamwork, which encompasses the totality of the work force in a company.

Garner and Whyte focus primarily on the infrastructure of authority through a series of detailed case studies. The case studies describe the role of the foreman from an authoritative figure to a common worker and the relations he has between those working in higher and lower positions. Full attention is given to the foreman as a result of his medial position and function in the company. He is the guide that will ultimately lead or mislead the workers. Management appoints leadership, yet Garner and Whyte note an apparent sub-leadership amongst the subordinate workers. The workers behavior is observed and resembles a cascade effect where those superior influence those below them. This is prominent when tasks fail to be completed.

A better understanding of relations in industry is accomplished with Garner and Whyte’s study. The research is conclusive in findings that like most societies industrial workers function as a team best when reciprocity is encouraged and two-way communication is established. Authority remains a difficult problem to solve since relations between supervisors and workers must remain cordial and empathetic in all situations.

CLARITY: 5
ARACELIS JANELLE SCHARON University of Wisconsin (Larry Nesper)

Gardner, Burleigh B. and Whyte, William F. The Man in the Middle: Position and Problems of the Foreman: Human Elements in Supervision. Human Organization, Spring, 1945 Vol. 4: 3-17.

In this article, Burleigh Gardner and William Whyte examine the job of the foreman, breaking the position down into four different elements in order to show how one can best supervise a group of workers. Specifically, they focus on the importance of teamwork, two-way communication, reciprocal obligations, and originating action with firmness and decision. Each aspect is illustrated with several examples, demonstrating how a foreman should and should not act in order to placate employees while simultaneously maximizing production.

The authors begin by examining teamwork and state “the effective supervisor thinks and acts as a member of a team” (3). They further explain that it is the foreman’s responsibility to make sure each individual feels that he/she is a member of the team as well. If the workforce considers itself a team, it will solidify and become more coherent. The authors stress that just because a foreman knows the process of the work does not mean that he/she will be a good supervisor, rather they must trust that their workers are competent to complete the task on their own. They also point out the foreman needs to learn to work with and recognize the authority of the leaders of small groups that develop within the workplace rather than attempt to “put them in their place.”

Second, Gardner and Whyte show the importance of good two-way communication. They recognize that while in our society communication from the top down is generally articulated very clearly, good communication from the bottom up is also very necessary. They make some simple suggestions including knowing employees by their first AND last names and establishing relationships with them so they actually feel comfortable discussing their problems. Finally, they warn against choosing favorites.

Third, the authors point out the power of favors and reciprocal obligations. They suggests that the good deeds can be either work related or “of a more personal nature” (13). However, they clarify that the foreman should not point out that they “are owed a favor” or that the employee is now indebted to them, or else the employee will feel very ungrateful for the favor. Additionally, they recommend that the foreman not lend a hand unless it is needed, otherwise the worker will either resent the interference or begin to take the help for granted.

Finally, Gardner and Whyte exemplify “the people who have the opportunity to ‘run all over’ their supervisor are not very happy about it” (16). Workers want a foreman who can make decisions and take control of a situation. They merely expect they will not be taken advantage of and their needs will be addressed.

All in all, this article is written very clearly. Although it is from 1945, the points it makes are still very valid today, even obvious due to the effort we put into training supervisors for their jobs nowadays. The examples provided are interesting and serve their purpose, although more context regarding the people examined or interviewed in the study could at times be useful. However, more than a study, this article could actually serve as a guidebook for foremen because it is so straightforward and easy to read.

CLARITY: 5
REBECCA FLAX University of Wisconsin-Madison (Larry Nesper)

Gardner, Burleigh B. and Whyte, William F. The Man in the Middle: Position and Problems of the Foreman: Conclusion. Human Organization, Spring, 1945 Vol. 4: 25-28.

This article is the conclusion and fourth part of a larger article dealing with the problems faced by a middle management foreman in a U.S. factory during the 1940s. The conclusion summarizes the earlier arguments in the article, reinforcing the importance of two way communications; both between the management and the foreman, and between the foreman and the line workers. Gardner and Whyte point out two critical problems in American 1940’s management environments, those of foremen trying to detach themselves from the line workers, and management enforcing one-way decision-making processes onto their foreman. They argue this position makes foremen feel they are a buffer between the management and the workers, which makes it difficult for foreman to work at full efficiency.

Gardner and Whyte set out to prove this with the following evidence. Foremen who are considered strict or lenient do not have a better level of popularity among workers based upon these characteristics. Rather, workers feel more attached to supervisors who build a system of personal loyalty. Secondly, foremen who leave and have many former employees follow them is a demonstration of the kind of loyalty a foreman should develop among the workers. This is also a signal of lack of development of personal loyalties with the upper management. Thirdly, they address the difficulties foremen face when they have no direct communication with their management. Workers may feel there is no reason to talk to them since they have no say with management anyways. Evidence, such as examples of pamphlets and form letters sent to foreman by management, illustrate these problems with one-way communication, and shows the anger it creates among the foremen who worked for these types of companies.

The difficulty in analyzing the evidence in this particular section of the article is that, as the conclusion, it does not present new data or use data to back up the arguments; it merely restates previous arguments in the article. However, for a conclusion, it effectively reminds the reader about previous arguments and synthesizes the previous arguments in an effective manner. The information in the conclusion is likely to sway the reader to agree with Gardner and Whyte’s findings without having read the three previous sections that initially presented the evidence.

CLARITY: 5
JENNIFER GULIG University of Wisconsin-Madison (Larry Nesper)

Hughes, Everett C. Leadership and Inter-Group Cooperation. Human Organization Spring 1945. Vol. 4(1):18-19.

In this short article, Hughes analyzes the problems that arise in the process of leader selection when cooperation between two or more groups is needed. In many cases cooperated efforts between two distinct groups often stall or are rendered ineffective by the selection of leaders. To illustrate this point, Hughes discusses the relations between the Native Americans and the Bureau of Indian Affairs during prior to 1945. The leaders of the Native American groups are often selected by the US government, and not by the Native Americans themselves. Since the US government tends to select leaders that exist on the fringes of native society, one can easily suggest that the natives are not accurately represented. This problem can also occur between cooperative groups that are meant to discuss matters of gender and economic differences, especially if one group is perceived as dominant over another group.

Hughes then goes on to describe the problems between the French speakers and the English speakers in Canada. Unlike the Native Americans, the French Canadians represent a large and organized group of people; however the English speakers hold most of the high political offices. In any political discussion, the French leaders who are supposed to “cooperate” and “represent” the population are picked by the English Canadians. The English are incapable of seeing the inner workings of French society or recognize its natural leaders. There also exists some fear on the part of the English to give the French Canadians any true power, for any leader that develops among the French will be seen as a defender against the English. Hughes hints that these two issues are the primary forces which often cause any cooperative efforts between these two distinct groups to fail or to be inefficient.

Hughes argues for the need for more research to be conducted. The problems facing any cooperative effort seem to hinge on the problem of leadership. A leader of any inter-group cooperative effort faces conflict on both sides of the issue and often needs to consider the needs of both sides. Hughes argues that if cooperative efforts are to succeed, the problems of leadership must be addressed. To achieve these goals, more research needs to be conducted by cultural anthropologists to help create devices and protocols which will promote cooperation.

CLARITY: 3
KRIS BURNITZ University of Wisconsin-Madison (Larry Nesper).

Lantis, Margaret. Applied Anthropology as a Public Service. Human Organization Winter, 1945 Vol. 4: 20-32.

The general problem the article addresses is the function of the applied anthropologist as a true scientist. The article, by Margaret Lantis, argues that research-based anthropologists largely do not consider applied anthropologists–like instructors, consultants, and clinicians–as true anthropologists. The author spends a lengthy sum defining applied anthropology. Anthropology involves viewing societies and their culture objectively, not as the anthropologistís audience wants to visualize them. According to the article, an anthropologist is a scientist of the public, with the primary goal being to help people learn about themselves (30). The most important requirements of the scientist include a viewpoint that allows the anthropologist to analyze and organize, an ability to use exact methods, and a certain academic integrity. Research-based anthropologists view applied anthropologists negatively because a true scientist should not compromise with his/her conscience when it comes to scientific discovery, and the applied anthropologist must select data to convey to the public, making him/her subjected to deciding what is important and what is not. According to research-based anthropologists, this critical decision is a product of the individual anthropologistís integrity, making the applied anthropologist more susceptible to moral-based as opposed to fact based conclusions.

The author sets out to prove the credibility of the applied anthropologist by comparing them to a ërealí social scientist, the social worker. The social worker, according to the author, is an example of what it means to be an applied social scientist. By comparing the social worker to the applied anthropologist, the author guides the reader through a list of the positive traits of an applied anthropologist. For example, emphasis is placed on the idea that the applied anthropologist relies on the group method to study his/her subjects. This group method, unlike the standard case method, allows the applied anthropologist to analyze subjects, tell analysis to others, and deal with the administrationóa similar process to that used by the social worker. Lantis compares the applied anthropologist to numerous other professions in an attempt to credit them with the title of scientist. Organized by subject, and the data in the article does not seem to come from another source, but from the authorís conclusions.

The article presents a sound argument that the applied anthropologist is equally as qualified a scientist as the research anthropologist. Although the point is well-argued and supported with examples and comparisons, the author never emphasizes the root of the issue. Discussing the root of the animosity and the reasons that research anthropologists consider applied anthropologists as unscientific would have made this article clearer.

CLARITY: 4
SARAH CATAROZZOLI University of Wisconsin, Madison (Larry Nesper)

Loomis, Charles P. Rural Sociologists in Latin America. Human Organization, Fall 1945. Vol. 4: 50-51.

In “Rural Sociologists in Latin America,” Charles Loomis briefly describes the work of rural sociologists and anthropologists in Latin American countries, as well as the programs these academics have established in those countries through the Division of Extension and Training in the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations of the U.S.D.A. After World War II began, work in this area of the world greatly increased and was seen by academia as highly significant. Loomis focuses on those sociologists and anthropologists of this time, who created a link between Latin American governments and people and the United States.

Dr. Olen Leonard is Loomis’ first subject. Leonard worked in Peru, Ecuador, Guatemala and Nicaragua. He established an Agricultural Extension service at Tingo Maria in Peru, but spent most of his time in Ecuador, studying the people of Hacienda Pichlinqui and working to establish an agricultural extension service in that country as well. He also assisted local officials with agricultural plans in Guatemala and Nicaragua.

Loomis moves on to discuss Glen Taggart, a rural sociologist and anthropologist who worked in El Salvador, helping local officials establish an Agricultural Extension and Adult Education Program for peasants who grew crops through a program similar to that which Leonard created in Peru and Ecuador.

The author explains that the Division of Extension and Training not only assists in applied sociological and anthropological studies, but also helps all governmental agricultural agencies in finding trainees from foreign countries. These trainees are tested in English and agriculture as a way of deciding the best methods to train them, and this questionnaire was used to analyze the changing attitudes and knowledge of how those from other countries view and know American culture.

Loomis also describes the work of rural sociologists sent by the State Department to Latin America. He specifically concentrates on Dr. Carl C. Taylor, Professor T. Lynn Smith and Professor Nathen Whetten. Smith studied the Japanese population in Brazil, as well as Brazilian labor conditions. Taylor reported on agricultural extension in Argentina for the U.S. Department of Agriculture and acted as an advisor for groups that dealt with policy formation in Argentina and helped establish the Argentinean government’s Institute of Rural Life. Whetten studied the Sinarchistista movement and colonization in Mexico for the American Embassy and advised on the development and analysis of Mexico census data, and his work led to the formation of the Joint Committee for the Improvement of the Rural Economy, created to assist distressed areas in Mexico.

Finally, Loomis lists other sociologists and academics planning studies and work in Latin America.

CLARITY: 2
JESSICA JONES University of Wisconsin-Madison (Larry Nesper)

Opler, Morris Edward. Social Science and Democratic Policy. Human Organization, Summer 1945 Vol.4(2):11-15.

In his paper, Opler discusses the role that science, particularly social science, plays in determining democratic policy. Opler writes about personal experiences, explaining how they relate to the reactions and obstacles that a social scientist encounters when addressing similar problems in modern America.

The first situation that Opler talks about shows the resistance a social scientist may encounter when trying to make a contribution. He made this conclusion when asked to do a socio-economic study of a western Indian Reservation where drunkenness and violence was a growing problem. The situation of this Indian Reservation is as follows: a superintendent came, found the tribe’s cattle herds in poor health, and made them improve by regulating matters; but he did not employ the help of the tribe, so they turned to drinking and gambling to occupy their time. When addressed by social scientists about his contribution to this problem, the superintendent felt attacked and that his efforts were being undermined. Opler also gives Hitlerism as an example of an individual making what they see as an improvement and expecting all other details to adjust naturally.

The second situation that Opler explains demonstrates how a social scientist can be used for his presence or prestige rather than for his knowledge; he may even be brought into a situation too late to have any influence on a policy. This occurred to him when he was sent to help determine the property lines for the Indian Reorganization Act. When he arrived to advise, he found that the committee in charge of this endeavor had already made up their minds about how the new organization would work and expected Opler to simply give them his seal of approval. However, he found that some Indians were unsatisfied with the committee’s plan. After some research, Opler made up a new plan, from which many suggestions were carried out successfully. Some individuals from the committee were pleased, but there were others who were upset at the intervention.

Lastly, Opler explains that resistance largely comes from individuals who more often believe what they want to be true rather than what really is true. He uses the situation of the Japanese minorities living in America at the time of Pearl Harbor, which he calls the Pearl Harbor sabotage myth, to illustrate this. It was thought by some of the American public that people of Japanese descent, no matter how long they were residents in America, had “aided the enemy” because they were of the same blood. Some even suggested evacuation and concentration camps for Japanese – Americans living in the continental United States. Eventually, people with Japanese ancestry living on the West coast were dislocated, while those in Hawaii remained un-victimized.

The paper is followed by a discussion by Felix S. Cohen.

CLARITY: 5
NICOLE HAHN University of Wisconsin – Madison (Larry Nesper)

Richardson, A. First Principles of Rural Rehabilitation. Human Organization, 1945 Vol.4(2) 16-37.

In his article “First Principles of Rural Rehabilitation”, Richardson endeavors to analyze and systematically summarize the principles detailed by Dr. Harold B. Allen in his book “Come Over into Macedonia”. The book is the result of ten years of experience rehabilitating provincial communities in Greece following drastic changes to population and territory.

In 1922, Greece experienced what some consider the greatest refugee problem in the history of mankind, the result of a shift in the Turkish-Greek border. One and a half million Greeks who had lived for generations in what now became Turkey flooded into a country of four and half million which had simultaneously lost 20,000 square miles. From 1929-38, the Near East Foundation, an American charitable organization succeeded in implementing a series of “self-help” programs to alleviate the refugee problem in Macedonia. According to Richardson, this particular undertaking is well worth studying, as “it is rare enough to achieve a successful rehabilitation among one’s own people, and on an international basis such an accomplishment is virtually unique”.

Richardson’s point by point summary of the principles derived from the Macedonia experiment delve into rather great detail. In the first part of the article, he divides the sequence of operations and accomplishments into four chronological periods: Planning and Experimenting, Starting the First Department, Adding Three New Departments, and Progress Toward Final Attainment. The general objectives were to eliminate undernourishment, develop more modern agriculture techniques, improve sanitation, and enhance the work of women. Departments composed of foreign organizations and local government agents were formed with specific aims. The reports contains charts which demonstrate impressive progress in sanitation, agriculture, and home welfare.

In the second part of the article, Richardson lays out four basic principles learned in Macedonia: The Importance of a Coordinated Action Program, Basic Program Policies and Objectives, Choosing the Program’s Initial Steps, and Mastering the Human Problems of Operating a Program.

In conclusion, Richardson regards the Macedonia study as a pioneer attempt to establish systematic principles to serve as a basic guide for anyone undertaking such a rural rehabilitation project anywhere.

CLARITY: 4
ANDY HOOGENAKKER University of Wisconsin-Madison (Larry Nesper)

Saslow, George and Chapple, Eliot D. A New Life History Form, with Instructions for Its Use. Human Organization, 1945. Vol. 4: 1-18.

In 1945, the field of psychiatric analysis relied heavily on intensive case studies of patients. These studies dealt with certain collective behaviors, which were thought to have common, almost identical characteristics in all cases. Saslow and Chapple took issue with this method of obtaining case histories. They posited that the approach was inadequate for two basic reasons: one, the set of topics for question were rigidly adhered to, which left no room for unforeseen topics, and two, the questions asked were geared toward finding broad generalizations about the patient’s life history, instead of focusing on their individual experiences.

With these inadequacies in mind, the authors proposed a switch from the old method, which was based on description by intension. The new method would be based on description by extension, and would focus on “particulars of each of a collection of behaviors” (ibid., p. 1) from the individual’s life. The authors gave an example of a patient labeled “unsociable.” Whereas the old method would take this description as a total behavior, the new method would seek to understand the duration, frequency, number, and variety of interactions a patient actually had. With this new approach, the specific events that contributed to the individual’s experience could be mapped, and thus the patient would be better understood.

To create an objective case history form that also allowed for specifics on the individual, the authors isolated three requirements that must be included. The first requirement stipulated that events be described that involved the patient and that relate to a certain behavior shown by the patient. The second requirement said that the criteria must be limited to “those which can be defined in terms of specific operations” (ibid., p. 2). The third requirement stipulated that a detailed chronology of events be recorded.

Saslow and Chapple formulated a new life history form using description by extension. The authors had intended to provide actual case studies in this article, but the pressures of WWII curtailed their intensions. Instead, they published an example of the form with detailed instructions for its use. In a footnote, they asked that other professionals try the form and suggest improvements. The pages record the “family history [of the patient] (…), estimated activity rate of members of the family known to the informants (…), antenatal history (…), initial environment into which the child was born (…), pre-school history (…), [and] institutional interaction of the individual” (ibid., p. 4-11). The authors believed that this case history form would allow the psychiatrist to recreate a sound idea of the subject’s history. From this, crises and reactionary behaviors could be easily discovered.

CLARITY: 4
MARIEKA BROUWER, University of Wisconsin – Madison (Larry Nesper).

Useem, John LT. Governing The Occupied Areas Of The South Pacific: Wartime Lessons and Peacetime Proposals. Human Organization, 1945 Vol 4 (1):1-10.

In the article by John Useem we gain a detailed and explicit indication of American military control over the Micronesian islands during warfare. It was the attempt to prevent any interference with combat zones and retain troop safety, while sustaining humanitarian service towards its civilian population. The overview grasps serious contention at the interference of military invasion and what followed next was the metamorphous of the Micronesian people into a de-centralized community, restructured to fit a Western concept and theory.

The article starts with a detailed overview of the orientation of the Micronesian islands, which lie east of the Philippines, south of Japan, west of Polynesia, and north of the Melanesian islands. It is a heterogeneous population differentiated between the “Kanakas or Chamorros” (1). The Kanaka live in the Caroline and Marshall archipelagos and are known to be un-aggressive, mild, and submissive, while the Chamorros reside in the Marianas and are militant, brittle , and explosive. Both groups, despite obvious differences in personality had the same “subsistent-handicraft” past economy and three centralized institutions, the village, clan, and family. Without an interest in territorial expansion or conquest cohesion was inevitable most times and seldom did warfare amount (2). Yet, continual outside foreign influence, apparent in almost every social sphere, eventual weakened its native living and in time Micronesians became mannequins to Westernized cloning and fell subservient to militant takeover. No longer could Micronesian people be called primitive people at all, but instead were run and ruled by a peripheral government. But, with the dismiss of a long standing culture and the onset of manufactured goods with modernized medical equipment, facilities, and even schools, could a sound navy and government administration be successfully achieved?

In theory the development of an association that informed the recruitment of Western Navy militant with superior knowledge and experience in foreign matters would seem plausible in obtaining such desired goals, however, the recruiters were found to lack imagination, be racially bias, and unable to make quick, rational decisions under intense circumstances and ultimately failed in every aspect at obtaining a peaceful administrative framework. The programming then of an effective civil affairs operation took many disparate advances, but saw comparable futile results. While, adaptability was more important than consistency or unity to civil affairs, all that stood was a weak-decentralized government with a constantly changing military picture throughout the South Seas.

While it appears that through intense efforts some success was achieved to alleviate immediate crisis and aid in military warfare, the after-mass of such destoring cohesion was neglected. American forces seemed to have used Micronesians as expendable entities to fulfill their own curiosities instead of people just like you and I. Micronesians now needed to find some balance between its pre-existing structure and its newly formed-Americanized identity in order to successfully become a future-futile landmark. A whole new social order was inline and that was left to be seen.

John Useem’s article “Governing the Occupied Areas of the South Pacific: Wartime Lessons and Peacetime Proposals,” was disorganized and astonishingly confusing. Its clarity unstable and its lessons lost amongst pages of perplexity. If the layout had been better structured, then the article not only would have been more interesting to its reader, but also more effective in its purpose.

CLARITY RANKING: 2
TARYN GUNKEL The University of Wisconsin-Madison (Larry Nesper)

Warner, W. Lloyd. The Committee on Human Relations in Industry. Human Organization, 1944. Volume 4.

In the article, W. Lloyd Warner discusses how civilization has progressed so far that its most distinguishable feature is it’s technological system. While the research on technical and economic problems has developed rapidly, our research on human problems has slowed to a trickle.

Warner continues to discuss a study conducted by the University of Chicago’s Committee on Human Relations in Industry. The study looks at the social relations of human beings in economic institutions and the behavior of the individuals of these systems. The interests of the study include the social organization of factories, union social organization, the relations of management and worker, the human problems of retail and service enterprises, the social place of management, the worker and the factory in the community; race and ethnic relations in industry, and the unions and other human problems which are related to the economic activities of contemporary society. Warner comments that those conducting the research hope to add to the common knowledge about the nature of man and society. By these applications, they hope to solve some of the problems occurring today.

Dr. Burleigh Gardner and Dr. William Whyte are conducting the current study, “The Man in the Middle,” which deals with certain social changes that are occurring in the status of supervisors in factories and service enterprises. They found that in order to deal with the attendant human problems one must have a scientific understanding of what is taking place in human relations in the business and industrial structure.

With studies like this taking place, Warner believes that civilization will become more aware and knowledgeable of relationships in the workplace and how to solve human problems in the industry.

CLARITY: 4
AMBER KRISTIN DRURY University of Wisconsin – Madison (Larry Nesper)

Whyte, William F. & Gardner, Burleigh B.. The Position and Problems of the Foreman. Human Organization, 1945 Vol. 4: 17-28

Whyte and Gardner Wrote this article based on issues surounding the occupation of the foreman. They address many aspects of this job and explain the difficulties people who hold this postion experience. They support their claims with personal testomoney from interviews of the foremen themselves.

They begin by attaking the conditionds that effect productive output of their work. The increasing rate of technological develpoment effects output in many ways. New techniques and tools are being introduced into the field and this requires new knowlegde. This calls for new workers who are more adept to the new equipment and tchniques. This can create insecurities among workers. In all, the foremans job will be more difficult.

The spread of unions makes the foreman’s job difficult. This puts restrictions on his actions in the work place. “He must accept the agreements reached between manage ment and the union regardless of their effect on him (7).” The foreman must form proper relations with the people at the union so they can correctly deal handle each situtation. A great fear the foremans faces is the possibility his mangement will not agree with the union and the jobs will not run as smoothly as they should.

War can also effect the working situations of the foreman. It is a period of instability. There are many technological changes that take place durring wartime. Labor is constantly short, often there is a high turnover in the workforce. Despite these downfalls management insists on an increase of output which is very stressful for the foreman.

The foreman often does not have a set place in the company. Management and his workers see him in very different postions. Management perceives him as being a person who works directly with the employees and represents the management on the work site. The workers, on the other hand, see him as an actual part of the management team. This also leads to confusion of how to handle authoritative situations. Management wants him to carry out demands but he is not always granted the necessary authority to carry the job out. For example, he may have a worker who is not productive, management wants him to do something about it but he is not given the authority to fire him. What is the foreman to do? This is why the foreman does not always know where he stands within his company.

A sence of anxiety and insicurity often lingers within the foreman. This can be caused for a number of reasons. As stated above they don’t know where they stand in relation to their superiors. Sudden changes in the work place can cause them to loose their job. They are not paid overtime even though they work long hard days. Sometimes, they are paid less than the people they supervise are. These anxieties and insecurities can effect the work of the foreman and cause him to have constant presure within his job.

It is clear that many of these problems are occuring because of the lack of communication within the many divisions of his job. Perfection of two-way communication could help relieve some of the presure the foreman experiences. Having direct contact with his supioriors on a regular basis can accomplish this problem. Improved human relations could help improve his perfomance on the job. This can help him build relations with the people he supervises and inturn improve their production.

CLARITY: 5
SARAH D. GANTZ University of Wisconsin- Madison (Larry Nesper)