Human Organization 1942/43
Arensberg, Conrad M. Report On A Developing Community Poston, Arizona. Human Organization 1942 Vol. 2: 1-21.
This report discusses the development of the Poston, Arizona community in 1942. It is a government report which was summitted to the United States Department of the Interior: Office of Indian Affairs. It discusses the establishment of the community and the actions of the council that was set up to deal with the formation of the community of Japanese immigrants who fled their county. The important thing to remember while reading this article is that the council that was set up was always intended to be temporary and even several months later the community was very different. Conrad Arensberg spent one month in the community doing his field work and most of the time was spent with different council members. In his report he explains an Administrative Reorganization Chart which is very helpful. He also gives a chart and description for the Organization for Processing Research. Both of these charts and explanations are helpful in understanding the article and also in the method which is good for processing research.
He covers four main points in his article.. The first one is a description of his activity at Poston. The second is an account of plans for the organization of research at Poston. The third is a record of his impressions, derived from interviews and from participation in camp life, dealing with the development of the community among the Japanese-American evacuees. The fourth is an appraisal of the Administration as it affects and is affected by the development of the community. He points out that for many things there was not enough time to gather completely trustworthy evidence to support his impression and appraisal, so there is a subjective character to both of these things.
For his impressions of the community and specifically of the council he operated with several assumptions. The first one was that the councils were to be recommendatory only. The second was that they were to be Fact-finding bodies. The third was that they were not to be complaint bureaus. The fourth was that they were not reflecting emotion. The last was that they must be carefully taught and lead in the adoption of parlamentary tactics. These were the assumptions that he used when he made his assumptions (this sentence could be clarified).
In my opinion I would say that Arensberg explains what was happening during the setup and formation of the Poston, Arizona community well. He covers many aspects and what was going on. (maybe say instead ‘ he thoroughly discusses the issue.’) But, one should remember that his research was only a snapshot of the development of one community.
CLARITY RATING: 4
ANNA ALBERT University of Wisconsin-Madison (Larry Nesper)
Chapple, Eliot D. Anthropological Engineering: Its use to Administrators. Human Organization, 1943. Vol. 2 : 23-32.
In Chapple’s article, he asks the questions which are asked of every anthropologist: what is it, and what is it good for? In answering these questions he goes through the basic principles which make up this discipline. First, he states that there are three premises of anthropology. These premises are that of human behavior, that human environment consists of the relations of individuals and that the techniques and activities making up what we call culture modify and control human relations. Chapple then goes on to explain each of these premises in terms of how humans as organisms adjust to their environment and the individuals around them. Next, he goes on to explain why anthropology is a science. According to Chapple, anthropology is a science because it explains the function of the changes that occur between individuals and their environments. “A science may be said to exist only when we can define a class of phenomena.”
In the next few paragraphs Chapple states that there are four theorems of anthropological practice. The first is the maintenance of equilibrium in relation to individuals and groups alike in a state of equilibrium. The second is changes in equilibrium which “deals with those cases in which the disturbing force impressed on the system is too great or too prolonged, so that when it is removed, the individual or group does not return to its previous state.” The third is variable nature of differences in human behavior. Chapple says that we shouldn’t look at extreme variation, but instead view difference in degrees. And the fourth is the determination of initial conditions which is the stimulus that caused the change in question. So, to “sum up,” he defines anthropology “by saying that it is a natural science whose concern is the study of human relations.”
The last sections of Chapple’s article go on to answer the question “what is good anthropology” and show the practical applications of it. Chapple says that good anthropology is the maintenance of equilibrium in institutions and if there is change to find the source. He states that there are four sources of change in institutions: a change in environment, a change in technique, a change in personnel, or a change in an outside institution. According to Chapple, the practical application of anthropology is anthropological engineering. The only problem is that anthropological engineering, in the proper sense, had only been developed during the last three or four years before this article was published in 1943. So, Chapple could not have seen the future use of anthropological engineering or used it as examples in this article. That is the major downfall of Chapple’s article – it is highly out of date. It is good for explaining the basic principles of anthropology as a science and how it can be used, but it of course lacks current examples which could be used to support his arguments.
STEPHANIE ROBERTS University of Wisconsin – Madison (Larry Nesper)
Donald, Gordon. A Study of a Consumer’s Cooperative. Applied Anthropology: Problems of Human Organization 1942 Vol.2(1):22-28.
In this article, Donald summarizes how an Albany cooperative grocery store was able to succeed during its initial stages by providing its workers social satisfaction rather than an economic benefit, which is more a characteristic of a “normal” occupation. He goes on to argue that the cooperative provided solidarity forces among its workers and volunteers as well as offer a sense of personal self worth by providing the opportunity for those with special skills to take on important positions within the group. These aspects of the cooperative created a sense of loyalty to the grocery store which resulted in much volunteer work and a great deal of purchasing despite location difficulties for most members. Donald constructs his argument by providing an account of his experiences as store manager of the cooperative during its crucial early existence. He points out how at first the store was very poorly organized and that many members were forced to put in a lot of after hour volunteer work to allow the store to function. Donald argues that this created a great deal of camaraderie between those who came to work and gave a sense of belonging to a group. He contrasts the early, disorganized status of the cooperative with that of its later more organized “business-like” appearance. He points out that as members became interested in improving the operation there was a loss of enthusiasm, especially among volunteers. Also relationships between members, such as that between Donald and the Store committee chairman, declined and lost their personal qualities. Finally Donald points out that despite the cooperative’s improvements overtime there has not been a marked increase in sales.
MICHAEL BALISTRERI University of Wisconsin – Madison (Larry Nesper)
Embree, John F. Resistance to Freedom – An Administrative Problem. Human Organization July – September, 1943 Vol. 2:10-14
“Resistance to Freedom” is a cultural account of how Japanese detainees in World War Two dealt with reemergence into American society after release from the camps they had been placed into in the early 40’s. Written in 1943, this is an immediate, simple reaction to the events taking place and how different generations of Japanese-Americans are dealing with the transitions. Taking a semi-biased view the author tells the story of the “Issei” and the “Nissei.”
“ Issei” refers to persons born in Japan, who have moved to America and become nationalized. “Nissei” refers to second generation Japanese-Americans who have been born in America. The article lists many problems inherent in the movement of these people after forcibly be detained in “relocation centers.” The major players are the people themselves and the War Relocation Authority (WRA.) The WRA represents the American government in the equation and is trying to find out why people are reluctant to move out of the relocation camps. The author is seeking to answer the question of why people are not moving out of a supposed “bad” environment into what is seen as “freedom.”
There are two basic answers to the question. One being that, moving out of the relocation centers brings on fears and insecurities in the detainee. “He is afraid of discrimination; he is afraid of the high cost of living; he is afraid for his wife and children.” The other basic premise the author presents as an answer to this question is the new social groups and organization occurred within the relocation center. People gained status within the camps that they risk losing by moving out of them. The Japanese detainee is in the majority in these camps and “in power” to some degree. This provides a sense of security that is hard to let go.
The author seems to be supporting these claims on little more than speculation. It doesn’t seem attempts to survey or interview the population of these camps may have been made, but they are not referred to in any way. There are no survey results or quotes from interviews supporting the claims the author makes. Common sense by the reader is relied upon heavily to back up the arguments.
The author makes some interesting claims about the Issei, saying that they are more likely not going to move. The Nissei, however still suffer from the same issues. While weak in supporting evidence imbedded into the text, the author makes a strong case for his arguments. The WRA and the Japanese populations of the relocation camps eventually became a thing of the past. There were, however, struggles in the process of “evacuating” the internment camps.
JONATHAN NOOK University of Wisconsin-Madison (Larry Nesper)
Goldfrank, Esther S. Administrative Programs and Changes in Blood Society during the Reserve Period. Human Organization 1942-43 Vol. 2:18-23.
The Blood Indians are a Blackfoot tribe who, in historic times, lived a nomadic life hunting buffalo in the western plains states and Canada. In 1877 they were placed upon a reserve in Alberta, and thus were forced to change from a nomadic life to a sedentary one. The author links this and many other changes in Blood society to changes in government administration. Her main point is that administrative programs of the government can cause fairly rapid and dramatic shifts in native societies, and that the government should be aware of these consequences when instituting new programs pertaining to these societies.
Her evidence for this is a chronological overview of the main events in the administrative history of the reserve period. At first, the government encouraged the Blood to farm and outlawed raiding. This meant that wealth (determined by the number of horses a person owned) was frozen in the hands of those who had horses when the Blood first moved onto the reserve. The effect was increasingly marked social stratification. Beginning in 1894 the Blood were encouraged to herd rather than farm. While the tribe overall benefited in these years, most of the wealth was still concentrated among the original horse owners. Starting around 1910, the Blood were then encouraged to cultivate wheat, which proved even more successful than the herding program. For the first time, wealth was determined by money, not horses, although the horse owners still had significant wealth. Then the harsh winters of 1919-20 killed most of the cattle, thereby impoverishing the herders, and the wheat farmers bought those cattle that survived. The herders still had horses, but now the horse was no longer a symbol of real wealth. This is just one example of the role that chance and governmental policy play in the shaping of a native society.
The article is very easy to read, and clearly explains the ties between the government’s administrative programs and their social effects on the Blood. In that sense, it is an informative case study for examining administrative policy regarding native societies.
LYNNETTE KLEINSASSER University of Wisconsin-Madison (Larry Nesper)
Harding, Charles. Reviews of the Literature: Uniformities in Human Relations Tentatively Established. Applied Anthropology (Human Organization), 1942 Vol. 2 (1): 39-45
In “Reviews of the Literature: Uniformities in Human Relations Tentatively Established”, associate editor of “Applied Anthropology” Charles F. Harding III reviews several books on the subject human relationships in industrial society and expresses his concern over the lack of well-integrated material. He carefully outlines several experiments that were carried out in order to determine the best way to analyze human relationships. He simultaneously reviews the books in which these experiments are discussed, and he offers critiques of both the experiments and the books. His ultimate goal is to expound upon the lack of research that successfully combines all the fields of behavioral study: “economics, sociology, psychology, and so on.” He states his belief that all of the experiments he discusses are useful and worth studying, but that the gap he sees between the various social sciences has not yet been bridged.
His basic argument is as follows: “Many of the problems upon which much energy and time is spent seem to be problems arising from the division of behaviors into various fields rather than from behavior itself.” To prove this point, he describes each pertinent experiment, its variables, and it results. He offers his own conclusions, as well as those of the experimenters, and explains why the experiments do not fully realize the goal of an integrated analysis.
The first experiments he describes are known collectively as the Hawthorne experiments. They began as a study of the “relationship between intensity of illumination and the efficiency of workers as revealed by their output” at a factory. There was no change in output discovered, and the experimenters decided to change the variables to find what would cause a change in output. Eventually, after creating new hypotheses and experiments, they came to a very different kind of conclusion: output rose when workers were able to form social relationships with each other and had more direct control over their work environments. He discusses another such experiment, in which textile workers in a mill in Philadelphia were given a chance to talk about their problems. As soon as they were able to form social relations with one another, output at the mill rose.
Harding ends his article with an appraisal of the ground broken by these experiments, but continues to lament the fact that no one has yet solved the “real problem; the completely objective description of social relations.” It is his hope that despite the lack of such a description union leaders and employers will still read the reviewed works and be able to gain a deeper understanding of human relations.
LAURA BERNSTEIN University of Wisconsin-Madison (Larry Nesper)
Harding, Charles F. Uniformities in Human Relations Tentatively Established. Human Organization, 1943. Vol.3: 38-43.
Charles F. Harding summarizes many other studies of the time period that researched the behavior of workers in the industrial industry. Throughout the entire article he compares the results obtained from other studies to those found in the Hawthorn experiments, which were studies conducted with the approval of the management of the Hawthorn Plant in order to increase productivity. Harding uses the results of the studies as evidence to support his argument that a new method of observation is needed to conduct further research.
Harding cites studies in which productivity was studied in relation to temperature, humidity, physical health, mental health, menstrual cycle, length of shifts, amount and length of breaks, intelligence, economic incentives, and whom their workers are working beside. According to Harding, inconclusive results were found between high humidity and high temperatures for light work; but there was a correlation found between the two in heavy work. In yet another study, the effects of physical and mental health on productivity were found to be unrelated. It was found in another study, cited by Harding, that there was also no support for the hypothesis that the menstrual cycles of the female employees affected production levels. However, the lengths of the shifts were found to influence productivity. Research showed that longer shifts gradually decreased workers’ productivity. In another study on the effects of intelligence on productivity, the results clearly indicated that a less intelligent person was a better worker than an intelligent one. Economic incentives were found, in yet another study, to be a positive force in increasing productivity. But one of the more surprising findings, of the studies that Harding cited, was that whom a worker was working beside was found to affect their productivity.
The general findings of these studies agreed with the findings from the Hawthorn experiments the majority of the time. The only studies that did not agree with the Hawthorn experiments, Harding believed would have come to the same conclusions if the durations of the studies had been the same amounts of time, and if the studies were in as much depth as the Hawthorn experiments.
Harding closes his piece by emphasizing the importance of social behavior in determining productivity. Harding also uses the discrepancies between the studies and the lack of detailed information in the studies to prove the need for a simple and objective method for describing the subjects and their interactions with others, while under observation, in order to conduct valid research.
JACQUELYN SARATORE University of Wisconsin, Madison (Larry Nesper).
Hooper, Ofelia. Possibilities For Improvement Among Rural Panamanians. Human Organization, 1942-3, Vol. 2: 4-10.
This article deals with Ofelia Hooper’s experiences when dealing with the primitive rural people of Panama. Due to these peoples having limited contact with their own cities, many conflicts and barriers have arisen. The two main dilemmas are the people’s health and the Panama government’s interaction with these people. By helping the rural part of the society out, Hooper argues, the government will help to make and stabilize a local source of food for the city population, as well as, improve the overall lives of the rural population.
Before Hooper makes his arguments and proposals he outlines the demographic and ecological information of the Panamanians for the reader, which is helpful when analyzing the situation. He also makes an effort to give the reader the rural perspective, not just the governments.
The middle of the article focuses on the main sources of economic despair in the region. One of the main reasons for conflict is the contrasting perspective that rural people and urban people have concerning land ownership. While the rural view holds that land should be owned and used communally, the government feels the best way is private ownership. Hooper hypothesizes that the government must be the one to compromise on this issue in order for agricultural progress to be made. This issue must be resolved before others due to the fact that crops can only be raised in half of the country, for half of the year. Since a large percentage of Panama’s population is in the same economic bracket, any help with benefit a large number of people. Hooper states that the Department of Agriculture of Panama has hopes of progress, yet it is not as equipped as it should be for the job.
Another argument Hooper makes is dealing with the health of the people in rural areas and what can be done about it. Malaria is very common, along with undernourishment. While working with the people, Hooper documents making small gains and hopes to be able to take his current research back to Panama in order to help more.
The latter part of the article deals with how he will be able to apply what he has recently learned and observed to help the people of Panama more. Some of his ideas include having rural farmers assess their needs in order to fix obtainable goals, increase use of protein supplies, increase in transportation resources, and more livestock production. Hooper then goes on to outline simple plans for acquiring these. To conclude the article, Hooper provides for the reader signs that indicate a promise for success.
STEPHANIE MILLAR University of Wisconsin – Madison Professor Larry Nesper
Infield, Henrik F. and Ernest Dichter. Who is Fit for Cooperative Farming? Human Organization January-March 1943 Vol.2:10-17.
In this article, Infield and Dichter discuss the need for using scientific procedures to select participants in cooperative rural settlements. They suggest that future members must meet certain criteria, specifically both the capacity to perform farm work as well as the ability to cooperate with fellow workers. They also argue that current testing procedures are not reliable and offer no help in developing some sort of preliminary interview.
Infield and Dichter then describe the current procedures of different cooperative communities. Religious communities accept anyone who believes in their faith, although they do not usually recruit new members. Selection procedures in secular communities only require answering questions about the self and do not address actual qualifications. Cooperative communities organized by governments or private organizations are still highly experimental and are experiencing a high turnover rate due in part to lack of proper testing using of simple criteria to determine members. Some semi-governmental agencies have a one-year probation period for new people, but this is not a very concise method and could be shortened if other procedures for testing were undertaken. The Penn-Craft Community, a private group, has the most methodical recruitment process. It requires a questionnaire, interview, and a “work-test” in which the future member works with community members for a number of days. Although it appears this process is working, as several families have withdrawn during the interview process, not much is recorded and available for analysis.
It is concluded that a comprehensive test is needed for the selection of cooperative farming members. Qualifications for prospective people include cooperative abilities, a social personality adept to living a noncompetitive life, and the physical capacity to perform farm work. The cooperative rural settlement must be sure to explain the requirements of their group to prospective members as well. The technological as well as socio-psychological skills necessary must be researched and analyzed by the community so prospective members are aware of the requirements and responsibilities entailed. A preliminary interview should be conducted and physical tests should be administered, observed, and scored to recognize talent and the ability to cope with novel situations. Infield and Dichter suggest possible tasks that could be performed by candidates as well as sample questions to ask on an exam. Their methods would help cooperative rural settlements to reduce turnover rate as well as obtain the best members possible.
This article was well organized, clear, and easy to read. Headings help to separate paragraphs, and the footnotes are extensive.
SHAINA KLEIN University of Wisconsin – Madison (Larry Nesper).
Loomis, Charles P. Developing a Permanent and Stable Supply of Needed Agricultural Materials. Human Organization, 1942-1943 Vol. 2: 15-17.
Charles P. Loomis’ article is about developing and sustaining a supply of agriculture that was in a shortage during Pearl Harbor. As a result of the shortage, the United States Department of Agriculture had Complimentary Products Projects established in Latin America for the production of strategic agricultural materials. These establishments were assisted by Land Grant Colleges. Loomis’ argument comes in the end of the article and is unclear about what he is trying to make a point of.
The beginning part of the article is about the agriculture that was in short supply and what was done to solve this predicament. The short supply of particular agriculture was called strategic materials. The most important of these materials consisted of rubber, bark which quinine is derived, rope and fiber crops, unique woods and a variety of plants that were used to produce insecticides. An example that Loomis offered to support the importance of strategic materials was when the U.S.D.A. had done some experimentation in Latin America before the war shortage with rope fiber abaca. With out this experimentation, the U.S. would have been at a disadvantage with naval operations and shipping due to most of the production coming from the East.
After the war, the U.S.D.A. now had the responsibilities of aiding the support of the Latin American countries in the development of these important materials. They accomplished this with the assistance from Land Grant Colleges. Loomis suggests that the three basic approaches that Land Grant Colleges take (experimentation, extension work, and resident teaching) would now have to be applied to the projects. The experiment stations are set up to pave the way for other activities with the U.S.D.A. providing some equipment and professionals. Extension stations are then connected with the experiment stations after the development of planting stocks. Training programs are then conducted by Bureaus of the Department for select students to, in time, replace the North American professionals.
In the latter part of the article, Loomis (1943) makes his argument on the duties of anthropologists vs. sociologists as part of Land Grant Colleges. He says that the steps in the development of the program are in the best interest of applied anthropologists and that the extension stage requires both anthropological and sociological training. But Land Grant Colleges typically staff extension sociologist, who then help the extension agents and specialist work. The extension agents expect the extension sociologists to help them develop an organization of groups in a farming county in which they can effectively work together with (p.16-17). As a result of these projects, large planting stocks have been established and the staff of the experiment stations asks that their skills be “extended” to the native people.
Overall this article is easy to read, but at the end of the article, I was unclear about exactly what the author was trying to make an argument of.
MALIA PATTERSON University of Wisconsin-Madison (Larry Nesper)
Loomis, Charles P. Applied Anthropology in Latin America: Developing a Permanent and Stable Supply of Needed Agricultural Materials. Human Organization July-September, 1943 Vol. 2(4):15-17.
In this article, Loomis demonstrates the practical uses for applied anthropology by explaining an example in which a current problem can be solved with the help of anthropologists. This article was written during WWII, and therefore, it addresses the problem of an agricultural shortage of certain products such as rubber and wood. These products were exported to the U.S. by areas in the East that were then under Japanese rule; the U.S. needed to find a new source from which to obtain these products.
All of these products are also found in Latin America, and therefore, the U.S. turned to that part of the world as a new source. However, these products were not being mass-produced at the time, so the United States Department of Agriculture assisted Latin America in “developing dependable supplies of needed agricultural materials.” To do this, they applied an agricultural improvement method used in the U.S. that consisted of three main objectives: “experimentation, extension work, and resident teaching.”
The author argues that the extension part of this plan is when anthropologists are most necessary. They are needed to study the cultures in which these agricultural methods are being implemented and organize the people into groups to whom the “extension agents,” can teach the new techniques.
Loomis clearly presents his argument that anthropologists’ aid is essential to the development plan by discussing the method they implemented and the importance of using cultural sensitivity to carry it out effectively. He mentions that some of these programs are already beginning. In fact, he has already completed a field study to help begin extension work in an area of Peru. As this work gets further underway, he indicates that more articles will be written about the process and progress of these anthropologists in aiding this development.
By showing the essential role anthropologists have in solving this problem of agricultural shortage, Loomis demonstrates the utility of applied anthropology for resolving world issues.
ELENA KOUNESKI University of Wisconsin, Madison (Larry Nesper)
Loomis, Charles P. Applied Anthropology in Latin America: Extension Work at Tingo Maria, Peru. Human Organization October-December, 1943 Vol.3: 19-34
The realization of Latin American agricultural goals is dependent upon the success of the cooperative work stations now being established in the region. Tingo Maria is one such experiment in Peru. The extension agent at Tingo Maria will have the duty of supplying knowledge and technical advice to the colonists. In order for the extension agent to be effective he must understand the needs of the community, and be able to communicate effectively with it.
What makes the Tingo Maria experiment more problematic is that it is actually two separate communities, living adjacent to one another. The first, called community A, is made up of people who were raised on the Peruvian coast, whereas the constituents of community B are primarily of Indians from the sierra. These two communities share similar goals, however, due to their backgrounds, their ideas about how to achieve these goals are sometimes extremely different. Many of these differences involve what combinations of crops and livestock are best, or what tools would be the most beneficial in their labors. The extension agent will need to learn work within these two groups, accommodating both of their needs.
The extension agent will find that having community elected committees will greatly simplify his task. The people elected to these committees are well connected in the community and will do an excellent job of representing the perceived needs of the community as a whole, as well as individuals within the community. These committees can also act as a conduit for disseminating knowledge, technology, and seeds.
The needs of the colonists mostly involve information. For example, almost all of the colonists interviewed desired dairy cattle, but many of them had no experience with the animal, and the type of cattle which would thrive in the montaña environment are not known. There is a similar story in almost all areas of animal husbandry, the colonists wish to keep these animals, but do not have the resources or the knowledge of how to do so. The extension agent will need to determine what the actual needs of the colonists are, how best to meet them, and finally disseminate that information amongst the colonists.
Loomis’ argument is almost entirely based on interviews with the colonists. He documents not only what equipment and knowledge they have, but how the community is connected and what needs the farmer has in order to be successful. For many data sets there are tables showing community responses, for others, simple diagrams are drawn. Oftentimes evidence is presented merely in terms of what percentage of colonists said what. He presents all his data in the most accessible form, in order to be useful to the extension agent who will eventually be working in the area.
ERIC FIEDLER University of Wisconsin-Madison (Larry Nesper)
Loomis, Charles P. and Nellie H. Skilled Spanish-American War-Industry Workers from New Mexico. Human Organization. 1942. Vol. 2(1):33-36.
In this article, Loomis discusses the job prosperity experienced by Spanish-speaking migrants who graduated from the New Mexico Schools for Vocational Training for War Production. These men were in great demand in California, Washington and New Mexico during World War II. In this discussion, the author considers the causes leading to an increase in skilled labor, sample data regarding job placement after school training, the workers’ present location, wages received, and education level.
First, Loomis notes that the surge into skilled occupations is recent. He argues that this trend , as a backlash of the Depression, reflects the desire to be economically stable and socially respected. The author then gives data regarding the school location and job placement beyond schooling, and finds that workers were in large demand, and thus subject to relocation where they were needed. Loomis then discusses workers’ present location, finding the majority of the workers located in California.
Next, the author writes about worker wages, with monthly wages averaging $148, and hourly wages averaging 85 cents. He notes that this data is incomplete because only a portion of placed workers reported their wages. Loomis then discusses characteristics of trainees in war industries, finding the average age to be 27, the average school grade completed to be 9.4. He finds no relationship between wages received and age or school grade completed.
LEAH BENDLIN University of Wisconsin (Larry Nesper)
Loomis, Charles P. Wartime Impacts upon the Schools. Human Organization 1942 Vol. 2(1):29-32.
In this article, Loomis discusses the impact of World War Two on the school system in America. In this discussion he considers the impact on teachers, students, and transportation. Multiple tables depicting numbers of students and teachers involved in the school system for the 1941-42 school year accompany this article.
First, Loomis argues that the war has had a negative impact primarily on rural schools due to the loss of teaching staff. War related industries and armed services pulled teachers away from positions in schools. This catalyzed the loss of teachers. Because of loss of teachers and growing urban populations, Loomis argues, urban schools took teachers from rural schools by offering better pay and benefits. In response, rural schools were forced to quickly replace lost teachers. This resulted in 23% of the rural teaching positions to be occupied by new teachers. In addition, 4.3% were teachers who had been issued emergency teaching certificates. Loomis argues this caused a decrease in the quality of education in rural areas.
Next, Loomis considers student enrollment in schools. Because families moved to urban areas, enrollment in rural areas decreased. But, as students in high school were able to find jobs, they dropped out of school, decreasing enrollment even more for urban areas. This added to the loss of enrollment due to the draft of high school senior boys.
Lastly, World War Two’s affect on school transportation is considered. Rural one-room, one-teacher schools closed in response to decreased enrollment. Therefore argues Loomis, students, particularly rural students, had to be transported to larger schools. Shortages in equipment and drivers would then affect and hurt rural students more so than urban students.
Loomis uses graphs and population tables to support his argument that World War Two has affected, sometimes negatively, the school system.
CATHERINE BECK University of Wisconsin (Larry Nesper)
Loomis, Charles and Grisham, Glen. The New Mexican Experiment in Village Rehabilitation. Human Organization, 1942-1943. Vol. 2-3: 12-37
The United States Department of Agriculture initiated a rehabilitation program designed specifically for the Spanish-speaking people of the American Southwest. It was intended to provide the people of El Pueblo, New Mexico with “intensive home and farm supervision” to make them independent of US government aid. The main objectives of the program were to determine techniques that would improve health care and increase food production.
There were four stages in the program. The Preliminary Arrangements stated the objectives, chose the location, and appointed the supervisors. The Development of Confidence by Individual Attention stage involved the supervisors’ entrée and acceptance into the community. The supervisors had to employ a variety of methods to overcome resistance. Stage three was Organizing and Instituting Program in Community Groups. Supervisors recognized the existing familial structure of the Spanish-American community and used it to promote cooperative tools, wells, and grazing land and to create community councils. The last stage was Extension of the Program to a 10-County Region. Regional programs emphasized the success of the El Pueblo as a solution to the problems of local communities.
Loomis and Grisham argue that the program was successful. Food production and preservation increased. Families built storage rooms and canned foods for winter consumption. In addition to cattle, hogs and poultry were introduced for both food production and income potential. Families were also instructed to plant and store feed for their livestock. Many of the health care goals were reached, such as modern sanitation, cooperative wells, immunizations, vaccinations, and routine physical examinations for school children. Cooperative leadership and community centers were formed providing villagers with their own leaders to replace government supervisors. Loomis and Grisham suggested that there should have been a health nutrition survey conducted before the program was launched. This would have provided important data that could have been used to promote the project to other communities, proving that it was effective.
The success of the program was based on three things. First, the local conditions of the area were studied and the needs of the people addressed. This was important for making the people want what the administrators wanted. Second, the program was well planned. This included satisfying the needs of the “whole man”, providing the supervisors with continuous structure, and promoting coordination between the agencies and the administration. Third, the supervisors were the main component and needed to be skilled negotiators to accomplish the goals of the program. For example, they must use the family and social structure to their advantage, initiating only slight changes first and at a gradual pace, and using a combination of patience, understanding and competence to gain favor and trust within the community.
Overall, the argument for cooperative action and production as a means to gain independence from government relief seems plausible and attainable. Loomis and Grisham concluded that if the necessary criterions are addressed than the “rehabilitation” will be successful and that the program will also be applicable to other developing countries.
SHANNON LAWRENCE University of Madison-Wisconsin (Larry Nesper)
Macgregor, Gordon; Useem, John; Hill Useem, Ruth. Wartime Employment and Cultural Adjustments of the Rosebud Sioux. Human Organization, 1943 Vol.2:1-9.
The study on the Rosebud Sioux, conducted by Useem, Macgregor, and Useem, explores employment and adjustment of the Dakota Indians into the world of off-reservation living. Many Indians started off-reservation employment in 1942 due to the cessation of reservation relief and the desirable wages available in industrial and agricultural settings. This article investigates this Sioux Reservation’s pre-war economy, past experience of employable men, present employment and social adjustments in both industrial and agricultural living, and lastly, gives recommendations to help smooth out the adjustment period of the Sioux in this area.
In order to convey their points, the authors used a variety of percentages and ratios within the aforementioned categories. During pre-war times, ninety-five per cent of the total population received some sort of public aid. Sioux customs are said to have prevented success in accumulating wealth because of their generosity, especially during drought and depression. For example, one out of every two Indian farmers failed, whereas one out of every four white farmers failed. To gain information on the past experience of employable men, a random sample of two hundred and fifty men were interviewed. Many people were involved in public emergency relief work more than anything else and whites were given higher wages and job preference.
Within the industrial realm, Indian workmen gained the reputation of being either very superior or very inferior. Many of the Indians were making complaints, coming into work drunk, and unskilled. These people who reside here live in the slums with few household facilities. These people are regarded as transients with no visible wealth and low standards, not sending their kids to public schools or connecting with white homes and clubs. More Indians, though, fall into the permanent resident category having well equipped modern homes. Indians were slow and unskilled in their agricultural jobs and viewed as lazy because of their relaxed views on work. Mixed-blood Indians and a few full-bloods were more apt to adjust to white society, while most full-bloods as well as some mixed-bloods were at disadvantages still adhering to Sioux cultural heritage.
To remedy these maladjustments, the Indian Service needs to help. To adjust to the wartime economy Indians need information as to the places and conditions of employments, interpreters, and aid to get to job centers. Indians should have a better understanding of different cultures and a mastery of English, the most effective tool for social intercourse with whites.
JOANNA KAY University of Wisconsin, Madison (Larry Nesper)
Mead, Margaret. News of Developing Research Methods. Human Organization January-March, 1943 Vol.2:35-37.
The purpose of Margaret Mead’s article, News of Developing Research Methods, is to give those interested in similar research a glimpse at new research methods that are as yet unpublished, but should be given attention. Four different methods are briefly described.
The first method, “A Method of Attitude Sampling Based upon the Concept of Cultural Character Structure” is designed so that responses can be analyzed and a general statement will be created expressing willingness to cooperate with a program and a diagram will be drawn up showing weak areas. Using this method, certain data are collected, but it does not utilize a systematically stratified sample. Use of this data leads to an ability to show how strong and weak motivations can be combined. Regarding propaganda, it also allows the researcher to see some arguments that will come up against certain courses of action and ways in which discussion can be avoided. Finally, this method of research is designed to tell attitudes expressed in verbal opinions given, not the number of people who gave certain opinions.
The second method of research, “The Method of Group Decision,” utilizes the democratic process. In this method, the group develops its’ own goals and acts under the leadership of one of its’ numbers. It was found that using group decision, the individual’s desire to reach a goal was not affected by his or her own tastes and prejudices as it was when lecture or authoritative request was used. This method is now being tried as a way to improve production in industry.
The third method of research, “Anthropological Analysis of Cultural Themes as Expressed in Fictional Moving Pictures,” is based on the assumption that those who make the film are products of their own cultures and therefore the emotions and opinions expressed are culturally significant. This method is useful in exposing the dynamics used by the propagandist.
The fourth and final method, called “Experiments in Cultural Acceptance of New Foods,” is designed to test acceptance of compressed emergency rations among different European nationality groups. The reasoning behind this experiment is to find ways to utilize cultural factors to work for a program as opposed to finding ways to change cultural orientation.
The main focus of this article is the summary of new research methods, not a particular research method, so there is little data and evidence offered in this article. It gives some main characteristics of each research method and helps the reader to understand where the particular method would be useful.
KATIE KRUEGER University of Wisconsin Madison (Larry Nesper)
Raper, Arthur, and Tappan, Pearl Wheeler. Never Too Old to Learn New Tricks; The canning Program in Green County Georgia. Human Organization, 1942-43 Vol.2: 3-11.
In this article, Raper and Tappan, explain the process of how home grown foods and canning were introduced in Green County Georgia. The Unified Farm Program in Green County assisted families with the canning process, and acquisition of necessary supplies.
The authors recap the major historical impacts on the community due to cotton growing. According to Raper and Tappan, the post civil war era jeopardized the cotton grower. The State Crop lien law and chattel mortgages attempted to financially shield time merchants, but the well-being of the landless families declined. Landowning families were required to place all effort on cotton growing, and other activities like gardening last. Thus, the production of homegrown foods was discouraged. This contributed to people buying store bought foods.
Development of a loan assistance program was developed to solve the dilemma. The State and Federal Agriculture Departments implemented the Unified Farm Program in 1939 to improve the low-income farmer’s conditions. The Unified Farm Program in Green County (including the Civilian Conservation Corps and Soil Conservation Service) was enacted to protect forests, restore soil, as well as improve education and health facilities.
Families could acquire assistance by applying for a Rural Rehabilitation Loan. The loan would help purchase supplies to can and produce homegrown foods. The loan also helped purchase fences to go around gardens and fertilizer for improving gardens.
Supervisors, provided by the Farming Security Administration, helped teach gardening and canning techniques. The purchase of pressure cookers and glass canning jars, made available through the rehabilitation loan, increased canning in the community. Not only was it possible to can more, it was required for loan eligibility.
At first, families were reluctant to make changes, but began to adopt the new techniques. Also reported by the authors was a change in role of division of labor between men and women. Men as well as women got involved in canning and gardening. The authors also discussed the benefits of canning home grown foods, which took the place of store bought meat, meal, and molasses.
ANGELA KUSSOW University of Wisconsin Madison (Larry Nesper)
Richardson, F. L. W. Jr. Thirty Years of Rural Reconstruction. Human Organization 1942 Vol. 2: 49-58.
In his article, “Thirty Years of Rural Reconstruction,” F. L. W. Richardson discusses the work that Dr. Spencer Hatch and others had done in changing the standards of living in poverty stricken areas of India during the 1930s. By looking first at the problems that existed in the impoverished towns, and then at the failed aid attempts by others, Richardson promotes Dr. Hatch’s methods of helping the Indian Villages. Richardson also provides several charts containing what he believes should be the objectives of the aid workers and the villagers in the rural reconstruction.
Richardson sites three major problems in rural India: the plight of the rural villager, misguided charity, and the need to discover a way out. Malnutrition brought on by poverty and lack of industry are the major problems associated with the plight of the villager. The idea that charity until this point had been too “piecemeal,” and that the villagers were not apt to continue with the programs that had been established by charities were considered major problems. As a solution to these problems Richardson advocates Dr. Hatch’s plan of “self-help.” To demonstrate how this system works the author sites a program started in 1925 in a rural community of 45,000 people among 46 villages known as the Martandam area.
In this area Dr. Hatch had three main goals: for the villagers to be able to satisfy their basic needs, to assure the permanency of the benefits, and to perfect the above two aims. To do this the doctor wanted to institute a program where outside agencies came into the village and taught the people living there how build and run necessary facilities, such as latrines, cash crop land, and cottage industries. In the Martandam area new wells were built and an egg market was introduced. This helped to reduce illness and improve the financial situation of the villagers. Another important aspect of Hatch’s plan is to provide a program “of the whole people, by the whole people, for the whole people,” with no discrimination by religion or caste.
Richardson argues that rural reconstruction is best done under Dr. Hatch’s plan of self-help as opposed to more limited scopes of attempts prior to the doctor. He believes that through improved health, nutrition and business the villages of India can become more productive and successful.
KALI LOSBY University of Wisconsin, Madison (Larry Nesper)
F.L.W. Richardson, Jr. Everybody Who’s Hungry Can Belong To My Church. Human Organization, 1942-1943. Vol.2-3: 44-49
F.L.W. Richardson Jr. shares with us S.B. Coles experiences with the Galangue Mission of the American Board of Foreign Missions based in Portuguese Angola, Africa. The mission’s goal was to help native tribes “eliminate undernourishment and poverty.” In order to accomplish this goal, the missionaries had to start off simple and small, and then they were able to expand. Problems arose for the mission during their stay and were solved with the help from other missionaries and traders around the area.
The missionaries’ work went through five stages that contributed to economic stability in the country. The first stage was basic organization. Getting permission to set up a site and finding a site that was not near a rival mission was their first task. The second stage, the Mission Scale was the opening of the mission. This did not go as well as planned, because the missionaries had a hard time convincing the native people that there was a more efficient way to grow their crops. This problem led the mission to the next stage, which was the Local Scale. The missionaries decided that the only way to prove to the natives that their ideas for effective agricultural expansion would work was providing the natives with concrete evidence rather than vivid words from foreigners. By accepting these new ideas, many natives were able to pay off their taxes and grow much more food than before. Moving to the Regional Scale was the next stage after the counties had a self-sufficient economy. Unfortunately, a seven-year locust plague occurred during which many people and their livestock. At the same time, the African government took away the mission’s land creating more problems. In time, both of these problems were solved and the mission was able to move on to the final stage; the Colony Scale. This stage entailed the government finally taking action and creating new organizations similar to those created by the mission.
Richardson concludes that with a little hard work and cooperation, a county can go far. The counties that were involved with the mission went from being some of the least productive to some of the most productive. Although they became Europeanized to some extent, they now produce enough food to keep themselves healthy and individuals are able to pay their taxes in a timely manner.
CAITLIN LELINE University of Wisconsin- Madison (Larry Nesper)
Roberts, William O. Successful Agriculture Within the Reservation Framework. Human Organization, 1942-43 Vol.2: 37-44.
In this article, Roberts discusses the impact that institutionally supported agriculture has on the families of the “Red Shirt Table” band of the Oglala Sioux on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. Prior to being selected as a target group by the Pine Ridge Agency staff in 1936, this community of 35 families was almost completely without resources. They had almost no livestock, no irrigation facilities, little farm machinery, unfenced lands, and lacked decent housing.
The Sioux Indians of this community had traditionally based their subsistence and social organization on the buffalo herds, which had almost completely disappeared by 1885. Several attempts to help develop self-supporting industry on the reservation failed. By 1935 the community was disorganized and demoralized. Most of their land had been leased to white livestock operators, but due to the drought, most had left.
The author looks at the most recent attempt to provide a self-sustaining economic base for the impoverished Red Shirt Table community that had few resources. Based on previous unsuccessful attempts the successful introduction of supported agriculture in the Red Shirt Table community requires certain minimum conditions be met. Included are
Sufficient natural resources – land and water
Financial support – credit
Total community involvement in planning.
The Pine Ridge Agency staff started preparation for the new program with the intent of involving members of the community in program planning and administration of their affairs. Lack of unity among the people and rivalry between leaders was an initial problem. Leadership was divided between “full-blood” and “mixed-blood” factions. Gradually, the two groups developed proposals that all families were eligible to participate in. These included livestock, poultry, and subsistence farming. Government expertise and financial support provided the strong basis needed to support the initial efforts by the community. The author looks at the program success on an annual basis for the first ten years, with financial solvency begin the criteria for success.
Though financially sound, withdrawing the Indian Service personnel from supervision and management, and turning administration entirely over to the Indians remains to be completed. Conflicts between “full-bloods” and “mixed-bloods” continue over leadership style and ability. Signs of community independence are shown in improved attitudes and community involvement. The members appear to be developing an interest in handling local matters.
The successful application of this type of model cannot be argued from a single case. The Pine Ridge officials are hopeful that their efforts may be quickly withdrawn from the Red Shirt Table and devoted to other communities. It is clear that the project needed not only support, but also community involvement, to succeed.
KAREN LEDERER University of Wisconsin (Larry Nesper)
Saunders, Irwin T. The Folk Approach in Extension Work: A Bulgarian Experience. Human Organization. July-September, 1943 Vol. 2: 1-4.
Saunders proposes that a Bulgarian tradition called a sedenka could be used as an effective approach to connect scientific and folk knowledge. The sedenka is a traditional gathering of women in Dragalevtsy, a Bulgarian village. This gathering, while informal, allows the women to share gossip and advice in a comfortable and productive way. Saunders believes that using the sedenka would be a successful method for outsiders to educate the peasants about current scientific knowledge.
Previous attempts to gather the community in large lecture halls had been unsuccessful because of a distrust of modern ideas. The local women were unwilling to change their ways because of the way that the new information was presented and the lectures returned to the cities believing the peasants were unintelligent. The ‘blended approach’ would allow people to gather in a familiar environment while being joined by people they are comfortable with.
Saunders uses personal knowledge of the Dragalevtsy village to base her argument. She witnessed first hand how outsiders failed to relate to the villagers because they were not aware of local customs. He emphasizes the importance of using the culture’s own traditions. The author gives 5 ‘Good Extension Principles’ of using the sedenka idea in other cultures, as well as some minor limitations of the sedenka theory.
By using logical reasoning and first hand experience, Saunders is able to convince the reader that the idea of the sedenka would be quite useful in other cultures to introduce current scientific ideas to those in small disconnect villages. By allowing the peasants to gather in their traditional way, the lecturer won’t destroy their established way of learning, as well as being able to connect with the peasants using a more accepted approach.
ELISE MATTESON University of Wisconsin – Madison (Larry Nesper)